The ‘Bantustanization’ of Ethiopia and Its Looming Dangers

20 mins read

By Dawit W Giorgis

The term Balkanization has frequently been used in reference to Ethiopia’s ethnic federalism, which has been codified in the country’s dysfunctional constitution that curiously defines politics, citizenship, rights and privileges on ethnic grounds.  However, the use of the term Balkanization in reference to the current situation in Ethiopia is inaccurate, since it does not fully capture the toxic agenda of the architects of the country’s constitution or the misguided policies of the current government.

Dawit W Giorgis

Strictly speaking, there are no political or administrative terms in history that can fully and adequately explain the bizarre experiment that we see unraveling in Ethiopia. Nonetheless, a term, which comes close to describing the policies of the current government and the unfolding ethnic violence and repression, is ‘bantustanization,’ which has its origin in apartheid South Africa.

“The 1959 Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act relabeled the reserves as “homelands,” or Bantustans, in which only specific ethnic groups were to have residence rights. Later, the Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970 defined blacks living throughout South Africa as legal citizens of the homelands designated for their particular ethnic groups—thereby stripping them of their South African citizenship and their few remaining civil and political rights. Between the 1960s and 1980s, the white-dominated South African government continuously removed black people still living in “white areas”—even those settled on property that had been in their families for generations—and forcibly relocated them relocated them to the Bantustans.”

Bantustanization dehumanizes a population and makes one race superior to others. It confines people to homelands with restricted access to other parts of the country, as was the case in apartheid South Africa. The Bantustans were administrative regions designed to exclude blacks from the South African political system, which was dominated by the white minority under the policy of apartheid — an institutionalized form of segregation and racism.

The idea behind the apartheid ideology was to allow the whites to own the larger proportion of the country with enormous natural resources and to establish  small and weak enclaves, separated and dependent on the racist government. The ultimate objective was to convert these Bantustans into independent satellite states, with full recognition by the international community. However, the apartheid ideology was completely rejected by the international community and the apartheid regime and its cruel policy eventually collapsed. Bantustans were subsequently incorporated with South Africa.

Bantustanization in Ethiopia 

As the Ethiopian leaders responsible for the chaos in the country very well know, it is virtually impossible to carve out any part or region of the country and create a viable state.  Ethiopian ethnic groups can only exist within a united Ethiopia, and the existence of Ethiopia is sine qua non to the survival of allThe history, the geography, the demographic distribution and the shared culture and heritage of the people are so intertwined, they do not allow for either ‘bantustanization’ or complete secession. Despite this fact, the ruling regime seems to be determined to create Bantustans under the subjugation of the dominant and ruling ethnic group.

Tragically, the US did not take firm actions on apartheid or the policy of Bantustans in racist South Africa at the time. Instead, it stood by the segregationist nation, and even allied with it in declaring a costly war on the legitimate government of Angola and in delaying the independence of Namibia. President Reagan, who served as US President from 1981 to 1989, used the phrase “constructive engagement” as a euphemism for dialogue with South Africa:

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“His rhetoric of constructive engagement was a cover for doing nothing, actually doing more than doing nothing, really providing American support for a retrograde regime” (1). Reagan staunchly opposed economic sanctions around 1985, while stating publicly that he condemned the inequity in South Africa, revealing “the historical US tendency to rhetorically denounce South Africa’s racial policies while simultaneously doing little to change the established status quo”

It was the civil rights movement that eventually forced the administration to take a stand against apartheid.  The anti apartheid movement:  “culminated in congressional passage of the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid of 1986, which mandated a variety of sanctions designed to force the dismantling of apartheid” (IBID) overriding President Reagan’s veto.

“When Nelson Mandela was freed from jail in 1988, Republicans tried to sweep their support for his erstwhile jailers under the rug. President George H.W. Bush hosted Mandela at the White House and praised him as  “a man who embodies the hopes of millions.” Mandela gave a speech to Congress at which the assembled legislators, including many who had once voted against economic sanctions, interrupted him with three standing ovations and 12 rounds of applause. Today, leaders of both parties have once again cheered for Mandela. What he really could have used was their help when he was imprisoned on Robben Island, trying to end apartheid.”

However the liberation movement, the African National Congress (ANC), and its leader, Nelson Mandela, remained to be listed as terrorists until 2008.

Herman Cohen’s Sinister Ploy

Ironically, certain individuals in the US appear to be inclined to repeat the sad history of apartheid now in Ethiopia. A case in point is the recent diatribe by Mr. Herman Cohen, former Assistant Secretary of Sate in the US department of state, ambassador, senior diplomat and author, in which he insinuated the idea of taking Ethiopia back to those shameful years of apartheid and ‘bantustanization’ in South Africa.  Mr. Herman Cohen was an active member of the administration when the US refused to take a firm action on apartheid and ‘bantustanization.’

He tweeted on June 24:

“Failed coup in #Ethiopia’s state was an attempt by ethnic nationalists to restore Amhara hegemony over all of Ethiopia that existed for several centuries prior to 1991. That dream is now permanently dead.”

And on July 19:

“Violence in #Ethiopia‘s Sidama, after similar events in Oromia, Amhara and Somali states, tells us the Ethiopian people will never again allow return to all-powerful authoritarian central govts as under the Emperors, the Derg and the EPRDF/TPLF. The future is true federalism.”

Ethiopians to date do not know what really happened in Bahr Dar, the day of the so-called coup, which is by the way a misnomer. I am curious to know how Mr. Cohen came to know that the killings in Bahr Dar were: “an attempt by ethnic nationalist to restore Amhara hegemony over all of Ethiopia”? Mr. Cohen further asserts: “ that dream is now permanently dead”. Even those very close to power do not yet know what really happened in Bahr Dar. It leads one to assume that Mr. Cohen has exclusive access to the Prime Minister who is the only one that has the complete information regarding this ‘coup’ and the killings of so many people including top officials, information which the PM has yet to share with the Ethiopian People.

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Mr. Herman Cohen is once again on the wrong side of history.  His assertion of Amhara’s hegemony in Ethiopia for centuries, which he took out from the propaganda leaflets of the TPLF, has shocked many. He exposed his utter ignorance. The responses to his twit have adequately addressed this.  It is however troubling to realize that it was this man with such ignorance of Ethiopian history, who   decided on the fate of Ethiopia in 1991, at the London conference, which he convened and chaired.  It was supposed to be a negotiation with the interested parties including the Ethiopian government. The Ethiopian government walked out because Mr. Cohen had already decided on the take over of Ethiopia by TPLF.  As a result of this ill-fated decision Ethiopians suffered for 28 years and the country is now near collapse.

The people of Ethiopia forgave Herman Cohen, but never forgot his crimes, when he eventually acknowledged his blunders and regretted his decision, after hundreds of thousands had perished, millions were subjected to Zenawi’s atrocious rule and the country was brought to the brink of disintegration.

Now Mr. Cohen reappears and once again meddles in the affairs of Ethiopia by advocating the break up of Ethiopia.  He suggests that “true federalism” is having   more ‘killils’  (ethnic homelands).  Ethiopia has 90 nationalities and establishing homelands for all is the ultimate definition of democracy for Mr. Cohen.  How does ‘bantustanization’ prevent “ the return to all-powerful authoritarian central governments as under the Emperors, the Derg and the EPRDF/TPLF.”?

The policy that he is irresponsibly propagating is one that would potentially lead to civil war and genocide within Ethiopia, cause considerably devastating instability in neighboring countries, and trigger proxy wars. In the scenario he is promoting, there is a high probability that the Horn of Africa would literally be on fire in the truest sense, with the Arab World and the US scrambling to secure their interests in the Red Sea and in the region. If a civil war starts in Ethiopia the world would also have to brace itself for an unprecedented flow of refugees in all directions, with most destined to Europe across the Sahara. North African coasts would be inundated with Ethiopian and other refugees from the affected neighboring countries in numbers that would pale the recent migrations from that part of Africa in comparison.

Regrettably, it is such senseless arguments as put forth by Mr. Cohen, with a narrow and myopic agenda, that have often put the US on the wrong side of history, as evidenced by recent events in Iraq, Yemen, Somalia, Egypt and Libya. The failure of the US to respond in the face of the unfolding genocide in Rwanda should have been a bitter lesson. President Clinton and the late United Nations Secretary General, Kofi Annan, despite their belated apologies and acceptances of a degree of responsibility, failed humanity by not responding to the clear early warnings. As a consequence, a million people were massacred and 800,000 people fled the country. The tragedy did not need to happen, but it did; and the US and the international community today live with the indelible scar of guilt and infamy.


Looming Dangers

People have been warning the international community for the last decade about the build up in Ethiopia. We now see genocide unfolding in the country and the silence of the US and the international community is stunning.  It seems as if no lessons have been taken away from Rwanda’s experience. People can only hope that there are seasoned people within the State Department who can understand and mitigate the implications of the irresponsible statements and proposals of discredited individuals like Mr. Herman Cohen.

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Those who know Ethiopia do understand that the country cannot break up and an attempt to do so will only introduce an endless civil war, with implications that go far beyond the region. To create a Bantustan, one only needs to apply brute force and military power; however, to dream of ruling over a nation of Bantustans and living in peace is an impossible proposition.

Sadly, the Ethiopian government is giving the finishing touch for the creation of a Bantu-style administrative structure with extremists monopolizing political and economic power. The process of ‘bantustanization’, which  is underway

will ensure that all the other ethnic regions (Kilils or Bantustans) become weak and incapable to challenge the dominant group at the helm of power. The Ethiopian constitution allows the ethnic-based regions (Bantustans) to secede if they wish to. The attempt by some Ethiopian ethnic groups to exercise their rights to secede will not be successful but will lead to conflicts. Like the Bantustans of South Arica they will not be able to get any recognition.

Since each ethnic group does not have a clearly defined boundary accepted by all parties, it will also be one more reason for conflict, as is evident now throughout the country. Unlike the Bantustans, the demography does not allow one region of Ethiopia to be exclusively of one ethnic group, since millions of people of different ethnic backgrounds live scattered in many parts of the country. Like the Bantustans they cannot be viable independent states.

The policy of this government is primitive and those elites who are behind these polices should be tried for crimes against humanity and for deliberately and intentionally creating the conditions for civil war and possible genocide. Bantustanzation is inhumane and should be recognized as a crime under international law.

The regime in Ethiopia is accelerating the fragmentation of Ethiopia into several more weak ‘killis’ to ensure that the regime would be unchallenged. There is even an attempt to further fragment some of the major ethnic groups, as is the case with the Amahras, which seem to pose the greatest challenge to the hegemony of one ethnic group. The shortsighted strategy of this regime is to divide the Amharas along regional lines. This exercise has been launched in subtle ways and there are signs of some cracks in the Amhara community. Currently there are nine ‘killis’; but with the recent movement in the south to create more ‘killils’, the door seems to be open now for more than 80 to claim their own ‘killis.’

Seriously concerned that it might be a prelude to genocide and civil war, the people of Ethiopia are resisting the government’s dangerous policy of ‘batustanization’. It also behooves the international community to condemn the unsound policy, as it did condemn decades ago the establishment  of the Bantustans in South Africa as an integral component of its apartheid policy. In particular, the people of Ethiopia once again call upon the international community to put pressure on the government so that the worst scenario can be prevented.

Statement like that of Mr. Cohen only enflame the already tense and charged political atmosphere. Responsible and eminent people should do everything possible to use their influence to deescalate the tense situation, advise and support the government to establish a national conference of genuinely elected representatives of the people to have an open  dialogue  amongst themselves and design a road map for the country.  Let such an internationally sponsored conference of the people determine the fate of this country, not a handful of extremists.

Dawit W Giorgis

Visiting Scholar, Boston University

African Studies Center


  1. An insightful contribution by the scholar and major Dawit w/Giorgis. But the soldiers of digital weyanne will jump on you using their many Oromo aliases. Do not mind their mudslinging.

    • The HERO of our time, Shaleka Dawit,

      Thank you for your many years of service and sacrifice to mother Ethiopia and now for being a voice to millions of voice less Ethiopians. You remind me of Teddy Afro`s song which more or less translates into “Great people are the ones who are there when no one is around”.

      I strongly believe that the tide of anti-Ethiopia and anti-Amhara propaganda by OLFites and and their masters, TPLFites, will be dismantled by brave citizens like Shaleka Dawit and the continuity of mother Ethiopia enshrined.

  2. To me, your idea does not work. For many reasons:
    1. Ethiopia is not South Africa. Ethiopia is unique. Ethiopia is Ethiopia where Gada System was practiced for a long time before democracy was started in any country.
    2. Correlation does not work because there are social and cultural elements entangled with the political system of the country.
    3. Causes affect the effects of any political dynamics. You know very well why Federal states of this kind are needed starting from the time of marvelous University students movement to mention one Walalegn Mekonnen.
    4. The issue of space and time is also important.
    5. Old dreams are old they are experienced and showed no positive result ( that is why we lost during your time a large number of soldiers in the battlefield to secure Eretria for nothing); the new dreams are most probable to take place. Mr. Cohen’s idea is viable in this regard. Accepting the existing federal system and reinforcing it is the cure for our holy country Ethiopia. No need for backsliding.

    For these and other reasons, I think there is no other theory or practice than the country started now by giving recognition of the existing Federal political system and further promoting in constructive ways.


  3. I found this article to be well written and loaded with material for further civil discussion. The most pressing and challenging issue is how that gem of the colored will not push itself into the abyss. Bigots have taken advantage of the reform since April 2018 to place themselves in every region. Many of them are still among us spewing their poison from their comfy homes. They attack every protesting Amhara as ‘hegemonic'(they are not seen using the word ‘neftegna’ quite as often as they used to) and every Oromo who cries foul as an ‘OLFite’. They have derogatory name for everyone. I see parallel and similarities with what it used to take place in the 1960’s and early 1970’s. Then, it was who the perfect commie was even though their objective was the same which was overthrowing the late emperor and replace him with the ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’. Both groups went back home responding to the call for return by the Derg but still hurling insults at each other. I was told that one group had managed to gain the preference of the Derg and was given the honor of educating the Derg members with the socialist scriptures. It did not take the insults too long to escalate into violent brawls. The ‘teaching’ group had the luxury of using the Derg’s resources to go after their rivals and had the upper hand. But it did not take too long before their commie sharp tongue got them in trouble with the ruthless and equally ambitious Mengistu. So when it was said and done they managed to take more than half a million cream puffs of the society to the grave with them. Those who survived were left with lifetime psychological scars that will remain with them until their last day on this good earth.

    I hope these sparring groups of our day will take lesson from that ugly part of our history and cool it. Sit down and have civil discussion. Have a stomach to listen to each other. Stop being so sensitive to criticism. The way it is now, federalism has gone a long way over there and any effort to discard it may not be a clever idea. To me what it needs is stronger federal institutions that will have indisputable power over the regions where the rights of the individuals are inviolable irrespective of ethnicity or religion. The right of the individual to live, work and raise a family with protected freedom from fear are guaranteed and protected by the law of the land. And I want to propose this and hold on to your seats for that. Article 39 where the rights to self determination is enshrined should remain guaranteed with the provision to secede stricken off(out). My long standing conviction is Amharas will not be able to live in peace in a stable society without their Oromo neighbors and vice versa. Without the decisive and heroic participation of my Bareentuma Oromos at Adwa in 1896, every current day Amhara and Tigre could have had Albertoni as his last name. Without the equally heroic and decisive feats by Amharas and Tigre warriors on that day, my last name could have been Vittorio by now.

    The alternative would be so destructive that we should all be ready to see the entire 100 plus citizens displaced and on the move rendering the entire country in ruins. There is no ‘3rd’ way.

    Again, I call upon these two groups (‘Hegemonic and OLFites’) to come to their senses, shake hands and have civil discussions. If you choose to continue spewing poison from your comfy homes and from a safe distance, you have to remember this. First of all, you must be ashamed of yourself and remember that sooner if not later you have to explain that to the Good Lord, The Almighty Our Creator, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful!!! Commies-turned-bigots notwithstanding!!!!!!

  4. Hhhh never be one country who is ethiopian and hwo is not iam somali iam not beleive as ethoopian and amhara believe that and christian dominated Muslim’s

  5. Dawit,it was the likes of your fathers who are responsible for the current ethnic federalism. If your father and others were not racist towards such groups as Oromos, the Southerners and even Tigres, there wouldn’t have been no ethnic federalism today. If the likes if your father had made Afaan Oromoo one if the language of government along side Amharic, there wouldn’t have been no ethnic federalism you hate. Of course we Oromos will make Afaan Oromoo the de facto federal working language in the short term and make Afaan Oromoo, Af Soomaali and Tigrigna the other federal working languages along side Amharic in the long run. We have also evidence that you were involved in the recent coup d’etat in Amhara region and that is why you are being noisy. Next we will create some ten regions in the SNNPR and weaken/eliminate the use of Amharic. We follow the same stragie in BG and Gambella and replace Amharic with Afaan Oromoo. We will do more 8n 5 or 10 years than you did to Oromo. Especually we will wipe out the remaining Semen Shoa from the face of Ethiopian politics. The future belongs to Oromo and being the majority we set the rules and you obey them as a minority. If not, you will be beheaded by a sword!!!

  6. Awil

    Do not worry you are best Ethiopian. Do not forget you are Kush similar to other most Ethiopians. In some Holy books, even Kush and Ethiopia are used interchangeably. Awil; you can be the best Somali, the best Muslim, the best kush, the best Ethiopian, the best African and the best international.

    Awil Biru loves you from the bottom of his heart. Express your idea more for further discussion. It is important to see the best future that is suitable for all nations, nationalities, and peoples of Ethiopia. I do not see disaster in this county anymore.


    Biru AF.

  7. Sheealaqa Dawit W. Giorgis is just another demagogue who has no creative mind except to bitch about Dr. Abye Ahemd’s short-comings! Didn’t he go home to Ethiopia after the Qeerros/Qarrees/Fanoons liberated the country Waynnee thugs? Perhaps for a position in the new regime? For some benign reasons, he was not included in the emerging regime as part of Amhara group! Hence, he has an ax to grind by continuously bad-mouthing the ruling crowd? At any rate, he would be the last man standing from the genocidal Dergue hordes, shamelessly crying fowl forgetful of his crimes of yesteryears!

  8. Dawit is at it again, giving his scattered and emotional take on political currents he doesn’t understand. This might as well been scribbled by some ANDM warrior kid; only that we expect better from Dawit, since he is, rich with age, if not erudition.

    This foolish scribble is so scattered that we can’t even tell who exactly is being maligned and why? Who is Ethiopia’s enemy? Aging and rotten Herman Cohen? The TPLF?

    The Ethiopian government? This, of course, is what Dawit is obsessed with, and for unhelpful and unsophisticated reasons. Dawit is unwilling or incapable of saying or doing anything constructive. It’s all about massaging his own ego and maligning Abiy for refusing to give him a prominent post when he showed up in Addis uninvited.

    Is Abiy to blame for what Dawit refers as “Bantustanization” of Ethiopia? Is it Abiy (the Ethiopian government) who rounded up the Sidama youth and told them to “Bantustanize” by any means necessary? Of course not, it’s Jawar. Abiy is actually trying to calm these crazed Sidam youth down who were dangerously and lethally radicalized by Jawar Mohammed. Why would Abiy tell the Sidam youth to “Bantustanize” only send the army to deny them that very promise? The answer of course is that Abiy never promised such a thing in the first place. It’s just that Jawar did not refuse Dawit a prominent political post; Abiy did, and that explains every unhelpful and unsophisticated scribble Dawit hurls at Abiy. So pathetic.

  9. አሁን አገራችን ኢትዮጵያ የምትገኝበት የጭንቅ ሰዐት: ከ 155 ዐመት በፊት አሜሪካ በእርስበርሱ ጦርነቷ ግዜ ገብታበት ከነበረው የጭንቅ ሰዐቷ ጋር በእጅጉ ይመሳሰላል:: አሜሪካ ያን የጭንቅ ሰዐት በድል ተሻግራ ዛሬ በአለም ላይ ተቀናቃኝ የሌላት ሀያል ሀገር ለመሆን መብቃቷን ሁላችንም የመናውቀ ነው::

    ኢትዮጵያችንስ ዕጣፈንታዋ ምን ይሆን?!

    ከ፩፭፭ ዐመት በፊት በወቅቱ የአሜሪካ ፕሬዝዳንት የነበሩት አብለሃም ሊንከን የባርያ ስርሃትን እንደርስቱ የሙጥኝ ብሎ ካመፀባቸው የሀገሪቱ ደቡባዊ ክፍል ለማስወገድና የሀገራቸውን አንድነት ላማስከበር መሀል ጦርነት ውስጥ የሚገኙበት ብቻ ሳይሆን: በፕሬዝዳንትነትም ለሁለተኛ ጊዜ ለመመረጥ የሚሞክሩበትም ጊዜ ነበር::

    ልክ አብይ አህመድ ዛሬ በዘር ፖለቲካ ከፋፍሎ መግዛትን እንደርስታቸው የሙጥኝ ብለው ካመፁበት የሰሜኖቹ ወያኔዎች ኢትዮጵያችንን ፈልቅቆ ለማውጣትና አንድነቷንም ለማስከበር የሚታገልበት ብቻ ሳያሆን: ስልጣኑንም ለሁለተኛ ጊዜ በምርጫ ለመረከብ እየሞከረ ያለበት ጊዜ እንደሆነው ማለት ነው::

    አብረሃም ሊንከን የአሜሪካን አንድነት ለዘለቄታው ለማረጋገጥ ሀገሪቱን ለሁለት የከፈለውን የባሪያ ስርሃት ለአንዴና ለመጨረሻ ጊዜ ማጥፋት ግድ ይላል ሲል: በፕሬዝዳንታዊው ምርጫ የሱ ተቀናቃኝ የነበረው ጆርጅ ማክሊላን ግን: አይደለም: የባርያ ስርሃትን ሳናድን የሃገሪቱን አንድነት ልናድን አይቻለንም ሲል አቋም ይዞ ነበር::

    ልክ አብይ አህመድ ዛሬ የኢትዮጵያን አንድነት ለዘለቄታው ለማረጋገጥ ሃገሪቱን እያበጣበጠ: ህዝብ እያፈናቀለና: ደም እያፋሰሰ ያለውን የዘር ፖለቲካ ላንዴና ለመጨረሻ ጊዜ ማስወገድ ግድ ይላል ሲል: በመጪው ምርጫ እሱን ተቀናቅኖት የቆመው ጃዋር መሃመድ ደግሞ: አይደለም: የወያኔን ከፋፋይ የዘር ፖለቲካ ሳናድን የኢትዮጵያን አንድነት ልናድን አይቻለንም ብሎ እየፎከረ እንዳለው ማለት ነው::

    አብረሃም ሊንከን ጆርጅ ማክሊላልን አሸንፎና የባርያ ስርሀትን አጥፍቶ የአሜሪካን አንድነት ሊያስክብር የቻለው የባሪያ ስርሀቱን ይቃወም የነበረው የሀገሪቱ ሰሜናዊ ግዛት ያለውን የሰው ሀይል የቴክኖሎጂና የኢኮኖሚ የበላይነት ሁሉ ይዞ ከጎኑ ስለተሰለፈ ነበር::

    ዛሬስ በኢትዮጵያችን አብይ አህመድ ጃዋርን አሸንፎና የወያኔን ከፋፋይና ደም አፋሳሽ የዘር ፖለቲካ አጥፍቶ የኢትዮጵያን አንድነት ሊያስከብር ይችል ይሆን??

    የዚህ ጥያቄ መልስ በታላቁ የአማራ ህዝብ እጅ ላይ ነው ያለው!

    ልክ አብረሃም ሊንከን ሀያሉ የአሜሪካዉ ሰሜናዊ ክፍል ከጎኑ ባይሰለፍ የሀገሩን አንድነት ሊታደግ አይቻለው እንደነበረው ሁሉ: ዛሬም በኢትዮጵያችን አብይ አህመድ ያለታላቁ የአማራ ህዝብ የማያወላዳ ድጋፍ የኢትዮጵያችንን አንድነት ሊታደግ እንደማይቻለው በጣም ግልፅ ነው!!

  10. IT is very painful what I experienced during TPLF regime. You are saying now let us unite. My family and I were treated badly by some TPLF members. As I tigreaway I musttake TPLF’s side since I will be again victim of other tribalist and narrow-minded members of Amhara or other tribes.

    Why are you telling us to unite with our enemies . I can tell you that some tigreans both in secular govt positions and in the church they are enemies of tegrau except for those who work , spy and fight for their political life on earth.

    I was asked constantly to which province I belong since they were diving Tigray among villages and towns when it comes to power , money and positions at worK;

    But, now they want us to vote and owrk for them since they are in danger .

  11. Your comments show that you are one of those TPLF cyber militia. The TPLF rule in Ethiopia had an open politics of racism, exclusion and marginalization of the non Tigres. Political and economic powers were conentrated in the hands of the few priveleged Tigreans. They carried out an organized and mafia style pillage of the resources of the Oromos and others and the Oromo youth and public said no.

  12. This is where we see real intellectuals input is very important. Thank you Mr. Dawit.

    biru belachew
    On the opposite side of civilization there is person like “biru belachew” who is admiring the GADA SYSTEM which is medieval and out of touch in today’s digital and advance society. The GADA medieval “shimagele” who is running around with “excuse me to say this but this is real) with a cut off male genitalia on his forehead. I am shocked to find such individuals who are able to write comments yet their mentality is not yet evolved.

    The current system is crumbling and taking down lives and resources with it. We have to move with time and respect democracy and humans rights!! Change is inevitable because until people are respected and feel safe there is nothing to stop the struggle to get rid of the uninvited hostile and greedy people in the government.

  13. Dawit,

    If you are courageous join your organization ABN in Ethiopia instead of barking like an hungry dog.

  14. Enat Hager,

    Fetari yikir yebelih. Kalalem antatika wayim artale bichamirih gid yelegnim endet;”The GADA medieval “shimagele” who is running around with a cut off male genitalia on his forehead” tilaleh?

    Biru Atomic Force.

  15. If I were Major Dawit whose blessed with erudition and vast amount of poliical, military and public experience, I won’t have characterized the current political and socioeconomic situation of country as bantustanization howver dismal and despering it may seem. Not even close. If for nothing else, the word itself and policy associated with it are affront and insult to the very essence of humanity, especially the black race as whole. This word conveys racial superiority and violence and exploitation. Any other English word and characterization or labelling such as Balkanization, fragmentation, disintegration, etc. would have done better job,conveyed the message better and could have reasoned critics and political friends alike.

  16. Meaza is using law and order as pretext to attack tigray . why she is turning blind eyes to the crimes committed by amhara and others

    she must be fueled by the hate and tribal idiosyncrasy.

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