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‘If you had money, you had slaves’: how Ethiopia is in denial about injustices of the past

January 18, 2023

Global development

Many feel the Ethiopia’s slave-owning traditions, which lasted into the last century, do not align with the country’s modern image of itself Global development is supported bBill and Melenda  Gates Foundation

A boy carrying firewood near the town of Dalbo in southern Ethiopia, once the site of a slave market. Photograph: Mike Goldwater/Alamy
A boy carrying firewood near the town of Dalbo in southern Ethiopia, once the site of a slave market. Photograph: Mike Goldwater/Alamy

Fred Harter
Wed 18 Jan 2023

Nothing hints at the dark past of the marketplace at Dalbo, a town in southern Ethiopia. Today, it is a thriving hub that draws farmers from the surrounding countryside each week, and doubles as a sports pitch on non-trading days.

There are no plaques, monuments or inscriptions revealing that enslaved people were once sold here alongside livestock and cereals. Local people will often shut down the conversation when the subject is raised.

“They are hiding the story because they feel ashamed,” says Zerfe Argaw, who lives on a farmstead a few miles outside Dalbo. “It is seen as a closed subject; people don’t want to talk about it.”

Zerfeis in her 50s, too young to have seen people being sold in the market, but she was told about the trade by older relatives. “I heard different stories,” she says. “Slave owners owned [entire] households as slaves and would sell whole families to buyers, including the children.”

Zerfe Argaw at her home outside Dalbo in Ethiopia. Photograph: Fred Harter
Zerfe Argaw at her home outside Dalbo in Ethiopia. Photograph: Fred Harter

Eight decades after slavery was abolished by imperial decree by Emperor Haile Selassie in 1942, this is how the memory of slavery is preserved in Ethiopia: as fragments passed down by grandparents.

Histories of the country gloss over slavery and the subject rarely surfaces in public discourse. At the National Museum of Ethiopia in the capital, Addis Ababa, none of the exhibits deal with domestic slavery, while in Dalbo the chains once used to bind slaves have been melted down to make knives and farm implements. Little has been preserved.

“Slavery is a controversial issue,” says Nigussu Mekonnen, a guide at the museum. “There is limited evidence and information about it.”

Most history is hotly contested in Ethiopia, a patchwork of 90 ethnic groups prone to outbreaks of inter-communal violence. The nation was forged through violent conquest in the late 19th century by Emperor Menelik II – whose empire was based on the culture of the northern highlands – and resentments from that era still smoulder.

Later came famine, revolution and civil war. Today, the country is grappling with the fallout of a bloody civil war between the northern Tigray region and the federal government that has killed hundreds of thousands of people, and a simmering insurgency marked by ethnic killings in Oromia, Ethiopia’s largest state.

“We tend to ignore certain kinds of history that would shape the negative image of the country,” says Kiya Gezahegne, an assistant professor in the social anthropology department at Addis Ababa University. Instead, official narratives focus on Ethiopia’s ancient Christian civilisation and its reputation as the only African country to have successfully resisted European colonisation.

“We are taught to be proud of our identity, and bringing in this narrative of slavery would be a challenge to that discourse,” says Kiya.

Yet slavery was once widespread in Ethiopia. Stretching back centuries, slaves served as soldiers, domestic servants and labourers, who were put to work at royal courts, in churches and fields.

Many were born into servitude. Others were captured in raids and during wars, or sold into slavery after they failed to pay debts. Much of the trade was domestic, although Ethiopian slaves were also sold across the Red Sea to Arabia and Turkey, where they were prized as concubines and servants.

Historical data on the slave trade is patchy. Ahmed Hassen, a professor of history at Addis Ababa University, says the number of enslaved people ebbed and flowed, especially during times of war, but estimates that up to one-third of Ethiopians were enslaved at different points in history.

In some districts, the proportion was likely even higher. The sociologist Remo Chiatti calculates that 50 to 80% of people were slaves in parts of Wolaita, a southern kingdom centred on Dalbo that was absorbed into the Ethiopian empire in the 1890s.

“Slavery was everywhere,” says Ahmed. “It was the backbone of labour; it was the source of everything. It was not only landlords and the court of the emperor keeping slaves, but also rich peasants. If you had money, you had them.”

Abolition came slowly, the result of “external and internal realities”, says Ahmed. The first big step came in 1923 when Haile Selassie signed an accord promising to end slavery to gain admittance to the League of Nations, although the practice was not stamped out entirely. In the 1930s, Benito Mussolini used the issue to justify his invasion of Ethiopia, which Italian fascist propaganda cast as a “civilising mission”.


Slavery in Ethiopia is not a historical phenomenon. Its legacy still affects people’s lives today

In 1942, after Ethiopia’s liberation from Italian occupation, Haile Selassie issued the decree abolishing slavery. Even then, the practice lingered in some pockets and the influence of the former slave-owning aristocracy would not be smashed until 1974, when revolution swept to power the Provisional Military Administrative Council, also known as the Derg, a Marxist-Leninist military junta that introduced land reforms.

Today, the impact of slavery is keenly felt. After abolition, many slaves became part of the families of their former masters, but in some areas the descendants of enslaved people are seen as impure and are marginalised, barred from participating in ceremonies such as funerals or marrying into other clans. In Addis Ababa, it is common to hear light-skinned highlanders refer to darker-skinned people from southern Ethiopia as “bariya” (slave).

“Slavery in Ethiopia is not a historical phenomenon,” says an Ethiopian researcher, who did not want to be named. “Its legacy still affects people’s lives today.”

A teacher in Addis Ababa, who also did not want to be named, recalls a conversation with his mother. “She’s the type of person who, if she saw someone hungry on the street, she would bring them to our house to eat with us,” he says. “But when I asked her if I could ever marry someone from slave descent, she said, ‘No.’ For her, it’s like a curse.’”

Little has been done to heal these rifts. In 2019, a year after Abiy Ahmed became prime minister on a tide of mass protests and promising reform, Ethiopia’s federal parliament set up a reconciliation commission to address past political repression and historical injustices, including the slave trade.

“It is one of the injustices that Ethiopian society inflicted on its members,” says Cardinal Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel, the head of Ethiopia’s Roman Catholic church, who participated in the commission. “We felt slavery should not be put under the table. It should be studied and addressed if there is to be real reconciliation.”

But the commission’s work was never published and it has now been subsumed into a broader national dialogue commission, which opposition parties claim is government-controlled. Critics of the government say political repression has crept back in after the outbreak of the war in Tigray in November 2020.

Liberating enslaved people in Ethiopia, circa 1930-1940. Photograph: Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone/Getty Images

The polarised environment has made it harder to discuss issues such as slavery. A teacher in Addis Ababa, who did not want to be named, says he grew up with “zero knowledge” that slavery was once so widespread.“People are too preoccupied with ethnic-based politics,” he says. “If you talk about slavery, you are accused of trying to divide your group.”

He says: “I see a lot of posts online about George Floyd, talking about how racist America is, and of course that’s an issue. But we also need to talk about inequality here. There are still ethnic groups looking down on others.”

A new generation of historians are starting to piece together the history of Ethiopia’s slave trade, but discussions remain confined to academic journals and seminar rooms. Last year, there were no public events to commemorate the 80th anniversary of abolition, and most local oral histories are still hidden.

This saddens Zerfe in Dalbo, who says she has passed the stories she heard about slavery on to her children and grandchildren. “As a history, it has to be told to the next generation,” she says. “What they think of it, that is up to them. But they should learn it to help them see injustice.”



  1. Slavery in modern day world took different forms and in order to disfigure its image and alter its genuine tradtional features and motives a minimal wage has been attached to it. So-called developped and wealthy nations are still practicing it and taking the advantage of mass migration. And their companies are waging war on poor nations .62 companies do exist in our planet which manifacture deadly artilleries including socalled smart bombs. They set up private prisons for profit to exploit poor men and women fleeing human made hunger and conflicts.
    Overall, about 8% of the U.S. prison population is housed in a private prison with the community and federal government agreement.

    “Presently, around the country, there are more than 128k people imprisoned in these types of services. During their time for each inmate, contract prisons pay a per diem they get the facility of houses. ”

    Mass exodus has enabled this countries to amass a great deal of richess and continue to boost the pulling factors that encourage africans and asians to believe that the grass is greener on the other side .
    Both Africa (against their own people as opposed to Africans or Americans etc )and EU are still practicing slavery despite the notorious annual holidays marking the abolition of slavery .

  2. Fred Harter;

    Thanks fort he contribution.

    Truth be told, the effort to abolish slave trade in Ethiopia is perhaps as old as the practice itself. If you have taken the trouble to do simple goggle research, you would have known that the effort to abolis the trade in Ethiopia predates the earliest European attempt (UK – Slavery Abolition Act, (1833). Below is a short paragraph from Wikipedia ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menelik_II ) on the subject.

    ” Abolition of slave trading

    By the mid-1890s, Menelik was actively suppressing the slave trade, ordering the destruction of several slave markets throughout the region and punishing slave traders with amputation. Both Tewodros II ) and Yohannes IV had outlawed slave trading, but as not all tribes were against it and as the country was surrounded on every side by slave raiders and traders, it was not possible even at the dawn of the 20th century to suppress the trade entirely. According to apologists, while Menelik actively enforced his prohibition, it was beyond his power to change the minds of all his people regarding the age-old practice. ”

    It’ s correct to point out that “slavery in Ethiopia was abolished in 1942. I would rather prefer to say it was made illegal by law. There was a serious attempt to abolish the trade in the 1920 s before the law was passed. See also “Ethiopian Emperors and Slavery” (https://blogs.loc.gov/law/2012/01/ethiopian-emperors-and slavery/#:~:text=Slavery%20in%20Ethiopia%20was%20abolished,on%20the%20institution%20of%20slavery.)

    What made me think Fred Harter’s contribution remains at the surface is his call of the Ethiopia’s Roman Catholic church head as a witness. Fascist Italy under Mussolini has slavery as a pretext to invaded Ethiopia. It said we’ll civilze the country by abolishing slavery, but they called Ethiopian Muslims and non-Amhara ethnics to rise against Orthodox Christians and Amharas from which the country suffers to this day. What was the role of Roman Catholic church in all this? It backed Fascist Italy under Mussolini for which it has not asked pardon and compensated victims to this day. Here is the proof: “Holy War – The Untold Story of Catholic Italy’s Crusade Against the Ethiopian Orthodox Church” ( https://www.hurstpublishers.com/book/holy-war/)

    No doubt that Ethiopia has to openly discuss its history of slavery, but it’s the truth and the whole truth at that that should be told.

    In the meatime, please tell Cardinal Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel to apologize the Ethiopian Orthodox church and its followers on behalf of the Roman Catholic Church. I hope the latter will do it before him.

  3. Minor correction to the last paragraph above…

    In the meatime, please tell Cardinal Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel to ask apology from the Ethiopian Orthodox church and its followers on behalf of the Roman Catholic Church. I hope the latter will do it before him.


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