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Ethiopia Needs Long-term National Development Plan (Part Nine, Objectives of Ten-Year Plan)

June 14, 2024

Tsegaye Tegenu, PhD

A long-term national development plan is structured in a sequential manner, encompassing vision, goals, objectives, and strategies. In parts seven and eight we have discussed vision and goals respectively. In this part we will discusses about objectives taking the example of the ten-year development plan.  Objectives are expected outcomes or the specific results or achievements that the goal is targeting. They are more detailed than goals and help to operationalize the broader goals into actionable steps. Objectives provide a clear focus on what needs to be achieved and by when.

The Ten Years Development Plan. A Path to Prosperity 2021-2030 identified six major objectives to achieve the “plan of making Ethiopia an African beacon of prosperity” (see page 20). The objectives cover a wider range of aspects, including economic systems, macroeconomic stability, structural transformation, social services, governance, and institutions.

As we have discussed in part eight, these objectives do not have goals unless we consider the plan’s statement about prosperity both as a vision and goal. The six objectives of the plan lack clarity and direction. Without goals, the objectives lack context and coherence, making it difficult for stakeholders to understand the overall vision and direction of the plan. Besides, without goals, it becomes challenging to prioritize objectives and allocate resources effectively, leading to potential misalignment and inefficiency.

Goals are generally qualitative and set the framework for what the plan hopes to achieve in the long run. Unfortunately, the six objectives of Ten Years Development Plan are identified without goals. Because of this the stated objectives are broad instead of being specific and measurable. As a requirement, objectives should be more detailed and quantitative, providing clear targets that can be tracked and assessed over time.

Not only that the stated objectives are not specific and measurable. When examining and classifying, I found out that enabling environments (4, 5 and 6) are considered as objectives. It is very important to clearly distinguishing between what the plan aims to achieve (objectives) and the conditions that must be created or maintained to support those achievements (enabling environments). When objectives are general and written together with enabling environments, it can create confusion and overlap. Enabling environments typically refer to the conditions or factors that support the achievement of objectives. Combining these with objectives can blur the lines between what needs to be achieved and what conditions are necessary to achieve it. That is exactly what is happening in the Ten Years Development Plan.

The ten-year development plan objectives are also spatially blind. They do not include considerations of regional disparities, urban-rural divides, and specific geographic areas’ unique needs and potentials. The ten-year development plan could have ensured a more balanced and inclusive approach to national development, if it could address in its objectives both the unique needs of different regions and the overall national goals. Sustainable development must consider geographic diversity and aim for equitable growth across all areas.

In the upcoming sections, we will discuss the phases and strategies of the long-term development plan, mission assessment, and the principles underlying the plan. Finally, I will present an outline of the long-term development plan for the country, inviting further discussion.

My presentation of these different parts may seem abstract and tedious at times. However, evaluating the government’s Ten-Year Development Plan requires a discussion of the technical aspects involved in its formulation. Additionally, a conceptual discussion of the sequences and structures of long-term development aids experts in identifying where their knowledge is needed.

I aim to foster collaboration among experts from various fields, including economists, policy analysts, sectoral specialists, urban planners, environmental experts, technologists, social scientists, legal experts, project managers, international development specialists, risk management specialists, and academic researchers. Needless to mention that the initial formulation of the long-term national development plan is the result of interdisciplinary collaboration.






  1. My younger brother is in a zone churning one intuitive piece after another. Whenever I read by Brother Tsegaye and the other Brother Suleiman articles, I keep asking ‘Where these two gems have been all my life?’ But now they are here among us gracing us with their clean and educating articles loaded with their productive experiences. We are so lucky to have them with us. Preach brothers, preach!!!!!

  2. ገለዶ የኢሕእዴግ አሁን ደሞ የፒፒ ካድሬ ተፈረንጅ እየቀዳ የሚለቀልቀውን ቀጥሏል፡፡ ሌላው ፒፒ ፋርዳ ደሞ ያደንቀዋል፡፡ እውር ለእውር ይትመርሁ ውስተ ገብ

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