Dr. Tsegaye Ararssa’s Caucasian Menelik, and the Trivialization of Adwa

37 mins read

Tedla Woldeyohannes*
 
I have encountered some puzzling claims made by Dr. Tsegaye Ararssa about Emperor Menelik II, and the meaning and significance of the battle of Adwa. One of the claims I discuss in this piece is not made by Dr. Tsegaye himself, but his interpretation and the application of the alleged claim is what perplexed me and hence prompted me to look for evidence whether the claim is true. The claim I am talking about is about Emperor Menelik II, that Emperor Menelik had reportedly said that he was not a Negro or black; rather, he had reportedly said that he was a Caucasian or white. I offer a fuller context for this claim below.  The second extremely puzzling claim is made by Tsegaye himself about the meaning and significance of the victory at the battle of Adwa, especially for black people, which he trivializes.
tsegaye I have decided to engage these extremely puzzling claims in response to Tsegaye’s invitation to discuss these issues in public. As far as I can tell, Tsegaye has explicitly offered his views on this topic on his Facebook posts. I have no reason to believe that he has no intention for his views to be engaged in public other than on Facebook. Hence, one of my reasons to engage these claims is to bring these issues to a wider public than a discussion on Facebook since these views are publicly expressed and promoted by Tsegaye, who as an Oromo public intellectual,  wants a national conversation on these topics. On his March 2, 2016 Facebook post, “The Peoples’ Adwa”, Tsegaye writes, “In fact, I encourage a deeper public conversation on the matter. Yes, a deeper national conversation that is long overdue.” A caveat: In engaging these ideas or claims, I do not claim that I’m a historian; nor does Tsegaye have an expertise in history. I encourage trained historians to join the conversation, to weigh in to evaluate the claims and the arguments presented in my piece, and hopefully, Tsegaye’s response to this piece, as well.
 
Did Menelik Really Identify Himself as a Caucasian?
Here is the fuller context for the reported claim that Menelik denied that he was a Negro, or black, and instead, he claimed that he was a Caucasian, or white. The story involves a Haitian, Benito Sylvain, who was a Haitian Pan-Africanist. In his book Abyssinia Today (1903), Robert Skinner, an American diplomatic mission, writes about Sylvain’s visit and conversation with Menelik after the victory of the battle of Adwa as follows: “I must relate in this connection an incident several times recalled to us in the country in regard to Mr. Benito Sylvain. Mr. Sylvain is a highly educated young Haitian of wealthy parentage—a full-blooded negro as a matter course. Mr. Sylvain conceived the happy idea some years ago of seeking the Emperor Menelik, in order to secure His Majesty’s adhesion to a programme for the general amelioration of the negro race. To Mr. Benito Sylvain it especially seemed appropriate that the greatest black man in the world should become the honorary president of his projected society.” Skinner goes on to add, “The Emperor  is said to have listened with great patience the exposition of this idea, and then, WITH THAT FINE, DRY HUMOR, CHARACTERISTIC OF HIM, he replied: “Yours is a most excellent idea, my young friend. The negro should be uplifted. I applauded your theory, and I wish you the greatest possible success. But in coming to me to take the leadership, you are knocking at the wrong door, so to speak. You know, I am not a negro at all: I am a Caucasian.” (Abyssinia Today, 130-131). [Emphasis mine]
Before I present Tsegaye’s view on the above quotation, let me add Skinner’s description of Ethiopians. Skinner writes, “While the tint of the pure Ethiopian varies between light olive-green and intense black, he does not regard himself as a negro, and, for that matter, possesses none of the striking negroid characteristics save that of colour. In thickness of skull, facial formation, shape of the foot, and notably of the heel, the Ethiopian is quite unlike the negro. Seven distinct shades are recognised by students of the Abyssinian complexion, and personal vanity is most highly flattered by possession of the lighter tints of the skin. (Abyssinia Today, 130).
Now here is Tsegaye’s view on the reported claim about Menelik, “I am not a negro at all: I am a Caucasian.” Tsegaye writes, “He [Menelik] claimed to be white. He clearly said he is NOT BLACK. He said he is a Caucasian (white). In other words, he viewed himself as some kind of ‘honorary whiteman’. Interestingly, he said this to a delegation of black Americans who came to his home to celebrate him as a black hero. He refused to accept his blackness.” [Posted on March 1, 2016 at 8:13am]. He adds, “To claim that Emperor Menelik II fought a black war is a distortion of history. It’s an insult to any self-respecting black person. What he did was fight an imperial war that happens to be between a white European and a black African empire (the latter of whom didn’t even identify as black or African). [In the same post].
Now let us examine Tsegaye’s view in light of what Skinner wrote about the conversation between Sylvain and Menelik by asking some questions that need answers before one concludes, as Tsegaye seems to have done, that Menelik did actually believe that he was white. Here are a series of questions for Tsegaye that he needs to answer to conclude from Skinner’s reported claim that Menelik denied that he was black, and claimed that he was white. (1) Did Menelik *actually* say in English “I am not a Negro at all; I am a Caucasian”? (2) If yes, what do you think was his understanding of the terms “Negro” and “Caucasian”? (3) Did Menelik actually speak in English with Benito Sylvain? Note that the reported claim comes to us via the medium of English.[1] (4)  While relying on a translator, what Amharic words equivalent to “Negro” and “Caucasian” could Menelik use? (5) Was Menelik directly asked this question: are you a Negro? (6) Do you believe that Menelik had the same understanding like us about the two terms, “Negro” and “Caucasian”? (7) Ethiopians are black, despite the fact that many of us dispute it. But do you know any Ethiopian who ever claimed that he/she is a Caucasian, literally claiming to belong to the white race?[2] (8) Don’t we have a term to call darker skinned Ethiopians in Amharic? (9) Don’t we use the terms in Amharic to call lighter skinned and darker skinned *friends* as terms of endearment, as well as in derogatory sense for *others*? (10) Does the term bariya (???), the derogatory sense, in Amharic for darker skinned Ethiopians, have the same meaning as “Negro” for Sylvain or African-Americans? (11) If an Ethiopian in America asked by an African-American, are you a negro, and responded  by saying, no, but I am  black, would this Ethiopian be denying his/her being black? (12) Is affirming one’s blackness merely based on a skin color enough to grasp the meaning of Negro and to identify oneself as a Negro? (13) Does an Ethiopian, born and raised in Ethiopia, truly understand the meaning of the term “Negro” the same way an African-American does or Sylvain did? (14) Does the term “Negro” convey the same meaning as the term “bariya (???)” for an Ethiopian?”
I think the above questions are enough to show that Tsegaye’s view that literally takes the reported claim by Menelik to conclude that Menelik did actually identify himself as a Caucasian is highly questionable. Here is one key clue to understand why interpreting the reported claim about Menelik literally to mean that Menelik identified himself as Caucasian is wrong. Note in the Skinner quotation above how he prefaces Menelik’s response to Sylvain as follows:  “With that fine, dry humor, characteristics of him, he replied….” When a writer indicates the reply Menelik reportedly gave to Sylvain was preceded with what he has written, how can one literally interpret the reply and conclude that Menelik actually affirmed that he was white and denied that he was black? We all know that when someone we know well as being humorous says something in a conversation we find ourselves asking whether the person is being serious or not before we conclude that what was said was actually what the person meant. We all know that what we say and what we mean by what we say are not always the same. One can say something without meaning it. The context of what has been said is crucial in understanding the meaning of what has been said. Tsegaye’s interpretation of what was attributed to Menelik violates these simple rules of interpretation of texts. As those familiar with theories of interpretation of texts would say, Tsegaye has read into the text instead of reading the text to understand its meaning. Reading into texts happens when a person has an agenda for which he/she wants to use the text.
Furthermore, in order to understand the utterances attributed to Menelik, note Skinner’s own view of Ethiopians as quoted above that “… [an Ethiopian] does not regard himself as a negro…the Ethiopian is quite unlike the negro.” This same Skinner reported that Menelik said that he was not a Negro, which is consistent with Skinner’s description of the Ethiopian people that they do not regard themselves as negro. Plus, it is important to bear in mind that Sylvain did not ask Menelik the question, are you a Negro?  Even if the question was put to Menelik as such, and if Menelik responded by saying that he was not a Negro, that does not automatically mean that he was denying that he was black. The most charitable interpretation is that Menelik would affirm his blackness as Ethiopians understand blackness without identifying themselves as Negros as that term has come to be used in the Western world where the categories of race between blacks of African descent and whites have played a pivotal role.[3]
Also, it is crucial to bear in mind that the conversation between Sylvain and Menelik was not about what race Menelik belonged. It is worth quoting, even if it is not needed, that Menelik has claimed, on other occasions, that he was black, which actually he was. Jonas writes, “For whatever reason, the same man [Menelik] who had courted the Dervishes against Italy in 1895 by appealing to a common blackness (“I am black and you are black—let us unite to hunt our common enemy”) now saw fit to decline Sylvain’s proffered crown.” [4] In an email communication, Raymond Jonas remarks, “It’s pretty clear that Menelik could use the notion of race tactically. Unlike Sylvain, Menelik wasn’t ideological in the least. He was black if it suited him to be black. And if it suited him to be “Caucasian” he could be that, too.”[5] Furthermore, the way I suggested how to interpret Menelik’s reported claims in light of his being a man with a dry sense of humor can perfectly be understood as him saying, no, thank you, Mr. Sylvain for your request, but I decline to accept it. In this connection, Raymond Jonas remarks, in his email communication: “When Menelik makes the “Caucasian” remark, he is trying to shake off Sylvain and the larger global role Sylvain envisions for him.”[6] Hence, it is perfectly legitimate to interpret Menelik’s response as a way of declining to accept the role Sylvain wanted Menelik to play for his Pan-Africanist cause.
Note that Menelik was supportive of Sylvain’s idea for which he was recruiting Menelik to be an honorary president, but was telling Sylvain that he approached the wrong person for such a role. Even if Menelik declined to accept Sylvain’s request, Sylvain continued to associate with Menelik. According to “….the black bishop Alexander Walters, Sylvain registered at the Pan-African Congress in London in 1900 as a representative of the Emperor. Menelik thus seems to have associated himself with black representatives at the congress.”[7]  I think the above examination of the extremely controversial claim about Menelik is enough for the purpose of this piece. I conclude this section by stating that Tsegaye’s portrait of Menelik as Caucasian is the creation of an Oromo ethno nationalist driven by ideology than what the evidence shows who the real Menelik was. The next section offers additional support to the preceding conclusion. Now I turn to examine Tsegaye’s other extremely controversial claims about the meaning and significance of the battle of Adwa.
Why Trivialize the Significance of Adwa for Blacks?
Let us start with Tsegaye’s view on the significance of Adwa for the black people. He writes, on his Facebook post on March 1, 2016 at 8:13am, thus: “To claim that Emperor Menelik II fought a black war is a distortion of history. It’s an insult to any self-respecting black person. What he did was fight an imperial war that happens to be between a white European and a black African empire (the latter of whom didn’t even identify as black or African).” He adds, “To say Menelik fought a black war of independence at Adwa is at best inaccurate and at worst a deliberate distortion of history intended to galvanize legitimacy for his rule and to print an image of a saint in the face of the need to acknowledge responsibility for his failings or the atrocities of the state he founded.” Furthermore, Tsegaye offers some reasons why some Ethiopians celebrate Adwa for a wrong reason thus, “To those of you who, because of historical misinformation–via political and cultural propaganda such as songs by Gigi, Tedy Afro and essays by Bewketu, and a self-conscious and yet a romanticizing film produced by Professor Haile Gerima, etc– to those of you who could not distinguish the right and the wrong reason for celebrating the event as a result; For you, I have only pity.” The following quotation gives us an insight into Tsegaye’s rationale as to how the significance of Adwa should be understood. He writes, “I will not shrink the meaning of the event or the historical figures into one and only one. I insist on multiple interpretations of Adwa and all other historical events in Ethiopia. I insist on multiple popular interpretations. I will not regurgitate and reproduce the state orthodoxy of the past as the truth or the one and only interpretation of historical truths.”
Now consider, in contrast, the following quotation from the Introduction of the book, The Battle of Adwa by Raymond Jonas. Jonas writes, “This is the story of a world turned upside down. On the first of March, 1896, not far from the Ethiopian town of Adwa, an African army won a spectacular victory over a European army…Ethiopian victory over Italy at the battle of Adwa was decisive; it brought an Italian war of conquest to an end. In an age of relentless European expansion, Ethiopia alone had successfully defended its independence.” [8] Jonas adds, “Inevitably, Ethiopian victory was interpreted in racial terms, for not only had an African army defeated a European army, but a black army had defeated a white army. Adwa thus cast doubt upon an unshakable certainty of the age—that sooner or later Africans would fall under the rule of the Europeans. Adwa is not only the founding event in the history of modern Ethiopia, and not only a founding trauma in the young life of the modern Italian nation. Adwa is, I would argue, part of our global heritage.”[9] One can add numerous similar quotations, but there is no need to do so for the purpose of this piece.
Now to the question: Why would anyone, in our case, Tsegaye, hold a view that trivializes the meaning and significance of Adwa for black people? To be fair to Tsegaye, his contention, at times, is that many, probably most who celebrate Adwa do so for wrong reasons. Consider the following quotation from Tsegaye. He writes (in the same Facebook post),  “This is also the Menelik that these nonthinking Ethiopians (averse to critical thinking while pretending to understand history or their country) are trying to celebrate as the man who fought Adwa to defend and secure the freedom of black peoples across the globe.” Note this: Tsegaye suggests that many celebrate Adwa celebrate it with the following reason in mind: That Adwa was “fought to defend and secure the freedom of black peoples across the globe.” But is this suggestion or assumption right? It is not. The fact that Menelik or Ethiopians fought and defeated the Italian army in the circumstances the war was fought need not be thought as a war that was fought to defend and secure the freedom of black people across the globe. Menelik did not have to engage in the war with that goal in mind. But that does not shrink the significance of the victory for what it has come to symbolize for blacks all over the world. The global significance of Adwa need not be the reason, at that moment, for Menelik to engage a European army conquering a sovereign nation with an intention to colonize its people. The significance of Adwa for black people emerged after defeating a white European army. The victory at Adwa stopped Ethiopia from turning into an Italian colony and that is what Ethiopians have been celebrating with pride as one of the nation’s emblematic moment of triumph over white Europeans. Our ancestors, paying ultimate prices with their lives, have secured freedom and human dignity for generations to come. In my view, trivializing the significance of Adwa for black people for a wrong reason is uncalled for.
Furthermore, to see why Tsegaye engages in trivializing the significance of Adwa, consider his view of Menelik as discussed above. In Tsegaye’s view, for black people, to celebrate Adwa as a victory won by a person [a leader] who did not regard himself as black is celebrating it for a wrong reason. But there is no good reason to believe that Menelik did not regard himself as black as I showed above.  Hence, one of Tsegaye’s main claims falls apart. That is, he has no ground to argue from the view that Menelik did not consider himself as black to the idea that celebrating Adwa as a victory for black people is wrong. This is plainly a mistake. Second, recall what Tsegaye’s positive proposal is when it comes to celebrating Adwa for the right reasons. He writes, “I will not shrink the meaning of the event or the historical figures into one and only one. I insist on multiple interpretations of Adwa and all other historical events in Ethiopia. I insist on multiple popular interpretations.” It is yet to be seen what multiple interpretations of Adwa Tsegaye has in mind. But there is a clue as to what he is opposing. Recall this, “I will not regurgitate and reproduce the state orthodoxy of the past as the truth or the one and only interpretation of historical truths.” Of course, by the “state orthodoxy” there is no doubt that Tsegaye is alluding to the Ethiopian state. Hence, his opposition is to the story of Adwa interpreted and told by the State that had conquered and incorporated the homeland of the Oromo people into the Abyssinian/Ethiopian imperial empire.[10] Remember that Tsegaye claims that “To say Menelik fought a black war of independence at Adwa is at best inaccurate and at worst a deliberate distortion of history intended to galvanize legitimacy for his rule and to print an image of a saint in the face of the need to acknowledge responsibility for his failings or the atrocities of the [Ethiopian] state he founded.”
One can conclude from the preceding quotations that Tsegaye questions the significance of Adwa that has been told from the point of view of the Amhara, the Abyssinians, or the Ethiopians. Alternative or multiple interpretations of the meaning and significance of Adwa is a project he seems to be interested in so that “I [he] will not shrink the meaning of the event or the historical figures into one and only one” and there is no doubt that Tsegaye is against the central role that has been attributed to Menelik for the victory of Adwa as his allusion to the “historical figures” suggests. Tsegaye’s proposal for multiple interpretations of the meaning and significance of Adwa suggests that it is wrong for the Oromo people to believe the received view about Adwa on the grounds that this view is the view of the Ethiopian state, which is distinct from the view of the Oromos. It is reasonable to conclude this section, like the previous section, by stating that Tsegaye’s trivialization of the significance of Adwa, in the sense discussed, is the result of his Oromo nationalist ideology.
Concluding Remarks
The following concluding remarks support the preceding conclusions. One wants to ask why Menelik is the target for some Oromo ethno nationalists, notably for Tsegaye, as we have seen above. Here are the two main reasons I can think of: (1) Menelik’s role in the battle of Adwa is central and Adwa plays a central unifying role for Ethiopians. (2) Menelik is attacked or targeted for his role in the formation of the modern Ethiopian state, which is the result of, according to this view, the conquest of, among others, the Oromo homeland and incorporation of the nation called Oromia into the Ethiopian/Abyssinian Empire.
To attack Menelik for the first reason is indirectly to attack Adwa for its powerful role as one unifying event for Ethiopians, but note that according to these Oromo nationalists, Oromia is not part of Ethiopia absent the “colonial” incorporation of Oromia into greater Ethiopia. In this connection, to offer a multiple interpretations of the significance of Adwa would produce a much diminished role for Adwa to play, say, only for the Amhara’s with which Ethiopia is usually identified by Oromo ethno nationalists. If the significance of Adwa is limited to the Amharas or the Northerners alone including the Tigryans,  that would diminish the key unifying role it has played for all Ethiopians for generations.  Hence, a multiple interpretations of the significance of Adwa seems to aim at producing local narratives or ethnic-based narratives,  as opposed to one unified national  narrative for all Ethiopians, including the Oromos. Those who are in favor of one unified significance of Adwa for all Ethiopians, including many Oromos since not all Oromos are Oromo ethno-nationalists,  would challenge the proponents of the multiple interpretations of the significance of Adwa to show why this view on offer is more significant than what it intends to replace. Following this reasoning, as one can see, would lead to the diminishing significance of Adwa for a country called Ethiopia. Consequently, Adwa would no longer be considered the victory of the Ethiopian people against Italy.  But why would anyone need such an interpretation of the significance of Adwa? Tsegaye must make his case to show why his multiple interpretation or alternative view of Adwa is better than the existing one.
The other reason targets Menelik for historical injustice that was committed in the process of formation of the modern Ethiopian state. Attacking Menelik for his role in the formation of the modern Ethiopian state is also attacking the notion of Ethiopia as one unified country because this unity, according to the Oromo ethno nationalists, is an imposed unity and the one who imposed this unity is Menelik. It is important to note this: Those who attack Menelik for the second reason wrongly tie, in my view, this reason to Menelik’s role as a leader at the battle of Adwa. That is, Menelik’s role in committing injustice (incorporating other nations, such as Oromia, by means of violence) in the formation of the modern sate of Ethiopia, in my view, should not serve as a ground to diminish or trivialize his role at the victory of Adwa. Furthermore, it is not hard to see that a coordinated attack on Menelik from the two angles, as I have showed above, is a direct attack on what unifies Ethiopians, Adwa, and who unified Ethiopia as a modern state, Menelik. As an Oromo myself, with a mixed ethnic heritage from the South, I will address the historical injustice committed by Menelik in the formation of the modern Ethiopian state in another article. It is my hope that in this piece I have shown that Tsegaye’s Caucasian Menelik is not really Caucasian at all, and it is uncalled for  to trivialize  the significance of Adwa for black people  for the wrong reasons in  the quest for justice and equality for the Oromo people. Also, it is my hope that this piece will trigger some discussion and debate on this important topic.
 
*Tedla Woldeyohannes is a doctoral candidate in Philosophy at Saint Louis University in Saint Louis, Missouri. Tedla has taught Philosophy at Western Michigan University and Saint Louis University.
[1] In his book, The Battle of Adwa, Raymond Jonas, notes that “Skinner spoke French, as did Sylvain, so while he [Skinner] would not need a translator to understand Sylvain’s proposal [to Menelik], both he and Sylvain would have relied on a translator for Menelik’s reply.” The Battle of Adwa, (Harvard University Press, 2011), 283.
[2] Raymond Jonas in a footnote to his discussion of the question writes, “Today, highland Ethiopians do not see themselves as black; when asked, they will say their skin is red… The key question for the historian is whether such a view would have been current in Menelik’s time.” (Page 390, footnote 60).
[3] In an email communication (5/24/16), the author of the book, The Battle of Adwa, Raymond Jonas, remarks, “It’s in this context that Menelik is said to have uttered the “I am a Caucasian” remark attributed to him by Skinner. In the book I point out that the phrasing of these remarks attributed to Menelik by Skinner is more elaborate in length and style than most other remarks attributed to Menelik by other sources. Menelik, in these other sources, spoke in simple and direct terms. Still, I don’t see any reason to doubt the essence of the remark. I think that here, Menelik was articulating the common Ethiopian view that Africa is home to many ethnicities and that Ethiopians are distinct both from sub-Saharan Africans from which Sylvain descended and the Arab and Berber populations of North Africa. Some would even link Menelik’s remark to a kind of Ethiopian chauvinism.”
[4] The Battle of Adwa, 283.
[5] 5/24/2016.
[6] 5/24/2016.
[7] Joseph Harris, African-American Reactions to War in Ethiopia, 1936-1941 (Louisiana State University Press, 1994), 2.
[8] The Battle of Adwa, p.1
[9] Ibid.
[10] See, Tsegaye Ararssa, https://advocacy4oromia.org/oromia/resistance-recovery-and-reconstruction-in-pursuit-of-equaliberty-in-the-21st-century/

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35 Comments

  1. Tedla:
    Another cheap hit job? It is only obvious that your writing is inspired by the fear of the potential in the oromos struggle for political power and a prejudice against the oromos. Those who engage in enlightening the Oromo people must be stopped at the earliest possible stage. Those who engage in enlightening the Oromo people must be stopped at the earliest possible stage. They must be discredited and characterized so that the unjustified dominance of Tedla’s political group is maintained. Because Tedla’s political group exploits the common people’s lack of knowledge, the enlightenment of the common people is its enemy.
    If you didn”t know the history of the Battle of Adwa, It is mostly Oromo War Generals and warriors who fought the victory claimed by Menilik. You only exposed your bigoted outlook of the Oromo by staining an intellectual – you are no match to Dr. Tsegaye Ararssa’s caliber. It is expected of pin-heads like you to look for opportune moments and spread hate and fear of the Oromo by anyone standing to your garbage. Your continued attempt of self-glorification by introducing yourself as a wannabe philosopher speaks volumes.
    Your continued assault on Dr Tsegaye Arrarsa’s character is beyond the pail. From the little I learnt about you, you are suffering from the the indignity of being re-named by Chauvinists and has been a very common and bitter experience of Walayitas as much as Oromos. You are ashamed of your Walayita heritage unlike Dr. Tsegaye Arrarsa who is a proud Oromo writing on behalf of all other sons and daughters of the Oromo nation, Your very national name (Walayita) was erased from public records and replaced by another one along with a bundle of pejorative connotations associated with it. My guess is that persons like you used to be coerced by their teachers to dump the names originally given to them to assume a new in order to start the process of qualifying as an Ethiopian.
    All Dr. Tsegaye is arguing against is that what people like yourself are demanding that individuals need to first die as Oromos, Sidamas, Walayitas, Kambatas, Hadiyas, etc. in order to be reborn as Ethiopians that sits at the heart of the political contestation in that country. And so long as being an Oromo and an Ethiopian are made incompatible, Dr Tsegaye have no choice but to either reject your Itophiyawinnet or suffer the imposed self-abnegation.
    I want to make one thing perfectly clear to you and your likes. The days when Oromos had to endure self-abnegation are over and shall never return. We have rejected the Itophiyawinnet that is the antithesis of being an Oromo and shall continue to do so as long as this antithetical relationship is maintained. The choice is yours and your likes’. You either accept us with our identity and other rights fully respected or you kiss goodbye to your much vaunted Itophiyawinnet and Ethiopian unity. Can you not see that there is something immoral in trying to build Ethiopian unity on graves of Oromos, Sidamas, Walayitas, Kambatas, Hadiyas, etc .? Why do you refuse to recognize that this aspiration is ultimately counterproductive? I only hope that this irrational, immoral and ultimately destructive aspiration would give way to a more sober and fair articulation of an Ethiopian identity that is as an amalgam of the identities of the various nations inhabiting its territorial space.

  2. Dear Tedla,
    This is not the time to discuss this issues and not relevant when Our country Ethiopia faced challenging problem under the fascist woyane all Ethiopian from the North to South focused to fight this thugtator ship please don’t divert our attention.we know why you are choosing this topic at this time we learned who you are.We believe every one has different out look and idea even if he said that.

  3. I am Ethiopian; I still do not understand what Negro mean This story Menelick said he was white is a hearsay, there is evidence that can be proved. People can have or form their own stories specially for their own agenda. I would never believe this story Menelick said he was white. The man who claimed the story is a third party man.
    Alewbel and Urgessa , this is the right time to discuss everything. I wanted to mention here, Oromos are settlers in Ethiopia. They must assimilate in Ethiopia, or vacate from Ethiopia. This claim Oromo did Adwa war or Axum is for Oromo, fasiledes is for Oromo, Lalibela is for Oromo, … will never get you anywhere. You have no history in Ethiopia and you cannot now all of a sudden steal the history of Amhara and Tigreans, afar, gurage,Agew, Shaho, … there is no way you can robe us our history in broad-day light. On top of that, you cannot fake history anymore because history can be profiled based on your DNA. We can raman date any old Oromo tomb in Ethiopia to date when Oromo came to Ethiopia. In short, if you were black? you would not use or prefer to borrow a dead European alphabet in the 21 century. Ethiopia belongs to Ethiopians. Anyone who does not like Ethiopia, Ethiopians, its unparalled history, … is welcome to leave Ethiopia. Immigrants must assimilate in their host country or leave their host country. If we are to discuss about Menelick openly in public? we must also discuss the history of Oromo in public. The fact that Oromos came to Ethiopia recently must be discussed openly. Oromos must know where they came from instead of trying to blindfold others to steal other people’s history? Oromo has no written or engraved or tombed history. The fact that they hate Geez and love Latin a European dead alphabet tells the emptiness of Oromo elites. Oromo elites, if you do not stop, you will only make the innocent Oromos to suffer. Palestians have been living in refugee camps in Lebanone for about 70 years now. No one can give them land. If you do not stop pushing people to the end of their tethers, you will go to Somalia, Kenya and becomes refugees in Kakuma, Dadab or go Islamic countries and live there and enjoy freedom of Islam there. You must stop insulting our past leaders or our history. It is the law of physics, if you hit, you will be hit back. No one is going to allow you to erase or rewrite our history to make new non-existing history. you better think better. You are immigrant in Ethiopia is not our problem. It is your problem. Either you assimilate or leave Ethiopia. Otherwise biting the breast of the country that hosted you and welcomed you, feed you will not be tolerated anymore. Anyone who does not like Ethiopia or Menelick or Yohannes or Tedros … is welcome to leave Ethiopia. We will never allow anyone to tamper our 50 000 years of recorded history. You do not have a recorded history or written alphabet is not our problem. You must stop insulting my country and allying with Muslim Arabs to destablizing my country. This is brotherly advice to Oromo or Gala elites. If you wanted an Ethiopia that is fair to immigrants and to non-immigrants? you are welcome and we can work together for better Ethiopia for all. Otherwise, claiming Fasiledes belongs to Oromo, Axum belongs to Oromo, Adwa is Oromos, Lalibela is Oromos,…bla bla is fairtale that exists in your mind. You must stop taking us back in time and blaming our people for whatever misery you have had in the past. Our country was burnt by Oromo Muslims for 26 years in row, and women raped, animals looted, 2 million priests beheaded and 400 000 churches burnt? but we are not wailing about them. We need to work for today and tomorrow and future. If you have problem with Menelick?dig his grave and talk to him. Stop wasting time blaming dead people, stupids.

    • lemlem,
      u are so dumb your emotion seems to be rattled by the Oromo brother’s intellect! I could not make sense of your doodles! please do not write if u do not know how to compose a relevant prose to your argument.
      To: Tedla,
      I am flabbergasted by your obsession with Dr. Ararssa’s writings, hence superior intellect. You claimed to be BOF at some period in your college days in Ethiopia, the absurdity of your claimed friendship is so laughable because friends do not assail one another in the manner you’ve flagrantly denounced him
      I am also amazed by your brazen claim to be a cauldron of Oromo and some other race. In Oromo Culture, there is an ethical norms/standard called “Saffuu” it is un-saffuu to label people wantonly, and even in a Western standard, your wrings about Dr. Ararssa could be considered slanderous and liable. You’ve transgressed the boundaries of fair criticism and for some one who claims to be a doctoral candidate in philosophy, your solipsistic and tiresome screed is not reflective of future philosopher.

  4. I recently met an African man from Swaziland. He asked me from where I am. I told him I am Ethiopian. He tried to tell me I am not real African? I tried to ask him how does a real African be defined? He told me kinky hair, big lips, huge body, more darkness, flat nose, … and we are black Africans does not mean we are the same with the rest of Africans. We are not the same. We have unique feature which is known as beauty across the world. We are African, black does not mean we have no our unique feature, beauty, culture, history, alphabet, … this is fact or general truth. Even in the bible it is written Ethiopians as handsome, beautiful, good looking, graceful, fierce, faster runners, fast sailers by boat unlike today where we are told using boat is for camels. The bible describes Ethiopians as bronze skinned, fearless who sail fast across the sea and who are feared from far and near. I still do not know what Negro means because this name is given by colonials. In general African do not know about it. I lived in many African countries, ordinary Africans do not know what Negro is and it is slavery name. May be it means slaves. Menelick was not a slave. I highly doubt he knew the term. I do not know why people believe whatever Europeans write. Anyone can enlighten me what Negro means and if it is African indigenous term? We call Abay river Abay or but in Geez it is called Tekeze. But Europeans call it Blue Nile? I never knew blue Nile. I do not believe Ethiopians know what Negro is even today. But lost and confused Gala elites are trying to reconstruct new history and stories by relying on European narrations from outside by denying our own written history? why? Inferiority complex, deep in their brain, suffering from inferiority complex. Accept reality or leave. No one wanted your fake history and fake alphabet or fake stories.

    • Lemlem
      you are a typical idiot (you may be useless straight girl) who doesn’t know who Oromos are and for that matter who Ethiopians are. We know you are throwing this piece of hate message to intentionally divide the two major groups of our country. But this too late for you. Or you may be among those old fanatic and narrow minded ethino centered people who always refuse to accept the truth and go forward to build us our nation, fight poverty and live in harmony. You may also be Egyptian and Shabia sale out (most likely a shabia who do always dream to see a war thorn ethiopia.I know many shabias recruits who do this intentionally. But I must tell you this fact-in what ever way- Ethiopia shall exist as one country but diverse people. God is at work. In the name of Amhara, you are trying to sow a seed of hatred against Oromos. These people have lived together for centuries and will continue. I As an Oromo, I encourage healthy debate. Tedela is bringing a good debate and more realistic. Please do not use the Name of Amhara to use hateful words for your idiot agenda. Just do your straight play out their where you live in begging out from another country. You have no good history other than begging, bragging, famine etc. (indeed all of us). Pride kills. you are the least of all nations in the continent. you are also black for that matter.

      • Why am I idiot Gala? You now Gala qualify to talk me? haha, alien resident in Ethiopia. You do not like it, but if you do not stop hate mongering? we will drive you out from Ethiopia to Somalia through the river Shebelle where you came from and Kenya. You must stop insulting our land, our history, our ancestors. If you do not like our country, please leave go to Somalia and Kenya where you came from driving cattle or go to the Islamic countries and enjoy life and freedom there. Ethiopia has spoiled you now too much. Specially the idiots woyanes has given you 3/4 of Ethiopia as your Oromia land? You galas must be beaten on the head like snakes. Otherwise, Gala is Gala if he gets a chance, Gala is merciless like feri keyaze aylekm neger?

  5. Great contribution, TEDLA
    Your indepth analysis fully exposes Dr. T. Regassa’s myopic view of a larger and sensitive issue which he wrote to please gullible Oromo and other ethno-nationalists. Apparently Regassa seems to belong to the second generation of Oromo academics engeged in maintaining Oromo myth created by his predecessors. As it goes, Menelik II is their principal target for undermining the Ethiopian state.
    Regassa’s simplistic but poisnous claim reminds me a brief note I read some years ago. There was a discussion on the VOA between Dr, Beyan Soba and Dr. Berhanu Mengist in which the former claimed that the 1931 Ethiopian Constitution makes a distinction between citizens and subjects. Dr. Soba’s
    claim was that Amaras were citizens while the rest were subjects.
    The Consitution in one of its articles reads:
    “The territory of Ethiopia, in its entirety, is, from one end to the other, subject to the government of His Majesty the Emperor. All the natives of Ethiopia, subjects of the Empire, form together the Ethiopian Empire.”
    Prof. Getachew Haile wrote a remark on Dr. Soba’s claim which was published on Zehabesha under the heading “How History and the 1931 Ethiopian Constitution Perceive the Ethiopians”. It was a good note and we recommend it to those who have not seen it.
    The idea here is not to shun the views of Drs. Regass and Soba, but to make the point that the myth creating and maintaing is part of ethno-nationalism politics. As such, myth is not wrong in itself even if it is not true. The worst thing if it is being built by deliberate lie and deception.
    Somebody with legal training who saw Prof. Getachew’s note contributed the following. We say BRAVO TEDLA to the contributor below.
    “There is no doubt that Prof. Getachew’s analysis is correct. Dr. Beyana would have lost a case if he argued in court the way he argued with Prof. Getachew. Dr. Beyana’s is a“white is black” type of argument we are used to in legal education and practice. We’re rarely penalized for arguing falsehood.
    The 1931 Constitution was drafted in Amharic and then translated into French. An English translation appeared for the first time in 1936. Any discussion seeking to find the meaning of words“natives” and “subjects” used in Article 1 of the Constitution should begin by consulting the Amharic text. However, since the Amharic text is not available, we will use the English translation assuming that the words in issue are in the Amharic text and are correctly translated into English.
    The Constitution is enacted over eighty years ago. The drafters, Ethiopians and their advisers who have passed on cannot tell us now what they meant by “natives” and “subjects”. In the absence of the drafters and their advisers, rules of interpretation of legal documents requires that the minutes (proces verbal) of the drafters that provide direct information on the guidance of the Emperor, public consultations in the process, documents used for drafting (such as foreign constitutions), debates on issues, scholarly commentaries on the text and case law should be looked into. A limited search for these documents on the web resulted in few materials. The Constitution did not have a preamble, a useful part of any legislation for interpretation, but there is a Decree that enacted the Constitution and speech from the Imperial throne. Both are available on the web (click here to see) and make no categories of “natives” and “subjects”. Instead, they are referring to Ethiopians as “people”.
    The text of the Constitution itself is another instrument to interpret articles and words in it. The word “natives” is used only once in the Constitution whereas “subjects” is the used to describe Ethiopians in all the provisions. Take Part III of the Constitution for example. It talks about rights and duties of subjects. If “natives” and “subjects” were different categories, the Constitution would have separated the rights and duties of the two peoples and a subordinate legislation enacted to enforce the separation. A constitution that introduced apartheid in South Africa had done that but nothing of that sort happened in Ethiopia. Add to this Chapter VI that deals with judicial administration; it apples to all Ethiopians without distinction. Chapter IV that created deliberative chambers also uses words such as “people” and “public” to mean all Ethiopians.
    There is more support to this interpretation if one takes what the Constitution stipulated regarding filling openings in the public service. No distinction is made between “natives” and “subjects”in the appointment of officers to the army, civil service, posts or offices, payment of taxes and ownership of movable or landed property. Senate appointment is from dignitaries while election of deputies is by dignitaries and chiefs until people are ready to elect themselves. These people are simply called “persons” or “members” by the Constitution. Judges, for example, were said to be chosen from men who have experience in legal matters.
    Given these facts, the words “natives” and “subjects”in the 1931 Constitution do not imply different categories of people with different rights and duties. The absence of the connective “and” between words “natives” and “subjects” makes this interpretation sound. The word “together|” implies oneness of Ethiopians rather than different categories of Ethiopians. A stretched interpretation might suggest “natives” to mean Ethiopian citizens or people whereas “subjects”suggest their relation with the monarch. Till this day, U.K citizens are subjects of the Queen. This does not however mean Brits are “citizens” while Scotts and Wales are subjects.
    Prof. Getachew has eloquently told us what “natives” and “subjects” meant under the Constitution from a historian and linguist point of view. Lawyers use both history and linguistics for interpretation. However, lawyer or no lawyer, views skewed by political motives are always difficult to change. With a tertiary level education in law, Dr. Beyana could not have missed what “natives” and “subjects” meant under the Constitution. He simply does not want to see his theory of “conquerors”and “subjugated”fall apart since it is something he has been working on for decades. In any case, if “natives” means to him the“conquerors”, the constitution does not recognize them; it only defines rights and duties of “subjects”. He should thank the good Emperor for the recognition of “subjects” than condemn him. Dr. Beyana’s argument will make no sense if he says the “natives” are the “subjugated” under the Constitution, but that’s not what he had in mind.
    Ethiopians like Prof. Getachew should stand their ground and push back people who deceive to build baseless political stories. Until recently we played the game of political correctness; we should begin to call, as the saying goes, a“leper” by what he is.”

  6. Lemlem & Shehitu Daadi aka Tigre thugs:
    You are not just from Dedebit BUT YOU ARE DEDEB TIGRES. True to your Dedebit history, twenty five years of looting did not change your illiterate minds. Time is running out – You will return to Dedebit. No more shall Ethiopians defend you when Shabia’s come after you – kick you tigre ass once and for all. Time to settle score is coming soon to Adwa!

  7. The people who arguing against My Hero Dr. Tsegaye Ararssa have close resemblance of today’s Trump Supports. You people are arguing that Oromos do not have any right to look at their history, the history that committed genocide on Oromo. Oh God, these loser are still around even if Ethiopia they are fighting for is moved from where it was century ago. so sad when the space has been changed and you guys stuck in time.
    Naftengyas’ are coming out of their cage and throwing punches on Oromo now. Stop your nonsense and please organize and fight like Oromo. If you need discourse on this issue, we will have one with you, once we are done with TPLF.

  8. Mr. Tedla the person who pose himself as intellectual got great advantage from woyane governments. He didnt have a degree accredited by Ethiopian higher education university or college. his degree was Bachelor of Theology From Ethiopian pentecostal bible college.this college never accredited by Ethiopian higher education system.however every thing is possible when you support or member of woyane he got scholarship from them and promised to accepted as a lecturere at Addis Abeba university.
    This is his interview word by word he did with The Newsletter of Tablot’s at Biola University.
    How do you see your Philosophy degree helping you accomplish that?
    Tedla Answer: I will use the Methods of doing philosophy learned her to train other chrestian in theological schools in Ethiopia. I have already been offered a position to teach philosphy at university of Addis Abeba in Ethiopia when I get home.I am looking forward to contributing to the life of Philosophy department.
    when others experienced sacked from their position he already got before he completed.In ethiopian to get job to employed you must be supporter or member of the ruiling party.
    why did he choose to fight Dr.Tsegaye ?because he debated his woyane Boss on German Radio and VOA and every media. he wanted to defends his boss.

  9. Chuchu Tadewos wrote:
    Before directly going to the purpose of my comment, let me state that I feel for Dr. Tsegaye Ararsa. He is an academician who has tried to engage Ethiopians on the current realities of the Oromo Protests. While within the context of his good grasp of Ethiopian history and politics, and federalism, most of all as a constitutional lawyer, he has made to date very useful contributions.
    For that, he is now being paid back badly, delusional and possessed minds, if not hired hands.
    I begin my brief comment by confessing that to date I have enjoyed Tsegaye’s writings on the current Oromo Protests, especially seen in the light of the TPLF operated Ethiopian state violence and dupery, and in that regard what needs to be done. Therefore, for some of us, especially after his interview on ESAT, he has proved insightful from the point of view of our country’s needs, realities and the corrective legal possibilities going forward.
    To the best of my understanding, as an individual with some legal training – I testify with a clean conscience – Tsegaye has endeavored to write objectively. He has exercised a degree of self-control, both as an Ethiopian of Oromo extraction that like all of us – Oromos and non-Oromos – aggrieved by the horrible and criminal TPLF massacres and incarceration of Oromos, in particular the youths.
    To be constructive in such a situation, it takes faith in the nation’s future. I am proud of Dr. Tsegaye Ararsa for the courage of his conviction and the efforts he has put forth to save the country he loves and belongs to. Amazingly, in so doing he has shown a good citizen’s discipline, the academician he has become with real depth and flair that has enabled him to tackled the remedial political, historical, social and economic inequality measure in Ethiopia’s current architecture that has come to be the norm since 1994, strictly as a constitutional lawyer.
    I would say his type in Ethiopian politics today is in short supply. And sadly, there are those that are, luckily very few, who have begun rearing their cruel heads to silence him.
    Thus, it is a pity ‘trained’ sycophants and/or others that lack his abilities, or are incapable of re-examining either their own inherited or acquired biases, or are driven by TPLF’s “30 pieces of silver”, should pour on all Ethiopians and the international community the poison they are subcontracted to spew.
    This article by Tedla Woldeyohannes, amazingly a ‘doctoral candidate’ teaching Philosophy at Saint Louis University, Missouri, has a lot to learn from Tsegaye. Reading his article, I have terribly despaired for the future of our country. I would remind readers that this person in a previous article: Ethiopia: Making Sense of Dr. Tsegaye Ararssa’s Self … repeatedly swore he was for a long time Tsegaye’s alter ego; he now tears him down like a hungry wolf, or a possessed individual, or he must be a mercilessly vindictive person in need of treatment.
    My reading of Tedla Woldeyohnnes’s writing, while feigning concern for Ethiopia, is intended, I believe, his mission is to derail everyone with his misinformation (wrong information) and disinformation (badly wrong information ‘in a suspicious manner’, (according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary), as people bad intentions do.
    I saw his long article only strenuously struggling, rather unsuccessfully, to prove a false claim he attributes to Tsegaye Ararsa about Menilik and the historic Battle of Adowa. He is accusing the Melbourne-resident of the abominable charge of viewing/or attributing to Emperor Menilik of a claim that he had said he was Caucasian.
    If Tsegaye had uttered this, let me come out and tell all Ethiopians why he said that. Until then, I remain the fan of this very articulate constitutional lawyer. To me, he seems a person who goes to where the law takes him. I saw this during these latest Oromo Protests, when he stepped up to the plate to address the problem rightly, exposing shoddiness of TPLF’s federalism, anchored on half-baked constitutionalism, merely to put down everyone, as they rule forever and ever.
    As to what the good Emperor Menilik had said of his color, I cannot say. Even if he had said it in the light of his time, so what? We are all products of a country known to have been assigning color to slavery and poverty. Why should this be something today dateline story, notwithstanding that our country has far worse political and economic crisis on its hands right at this moment? I cannot fathom why Ethiopians should now be called upon to senselessly gin up whether Menilik had said he was Caucasian?
    Is it to understand whether he now is in heaven or hell, or make him eternally responsible for Ethiopia’s perpetual problems?
    Ask me about Emperor Menilik, he was the wise person Ethiopia was lucky to have, including his Queen Taytu, who had a lot of good in their hearts for the Motherland. His bravery and that of his queen at Adowa has planted them in the history books and Ethiopian hearts no one is particularly competent to dethrone him. Also recall that Menilik coopted all able-bodied Ethiopians from all corners of the country, with whose united strength he managed to teach colonial Italy its lesson. Without today’s TPLF’s techniques at false popular mobilization and the treachery there on, the people overwhelmingly responded to his battle call and gave their lives to save the nation.
    What biased people often forget in Ethiopian history is that, Adowa would have lost all its allure to Ethiopians and internationally, if the Oromos had not pulled from the front and rear to beat the imperialism of the 19th century. That happened under the duo’s command – the inspirational Menilik and Taytu in unison and mutual respect.
    On article that Tedla W.Yohannes used against Tsegaye is his statement: The Right to Freedom (https://advocacy4oromia.org/oromia/resistance-recovery-and-reconstruction-in-pursuit-of-equaliberty-in-the-21st-century/ ) of April 16, 2016 in Melbourne, Australia. In that prepared statement, the accused, among others, said:
    “Pursuing a strong democracy in a country such as Ethiopia, pursuing transformative power in this context, requires a huge sense of responsibility to reckon with the other (all the Ethiopian others) with an eye on reconfiguring the terms of citizenship, to reconstruct the state, and to transfigure the state-society relationship. This process of pursuing and achieving transformative power is an engagement in the task of redemption (a process of turning the essentially illegitimate into legitimate).”
    What is Tsegaye’s crucifier so concerned about, or why he should accuse him of being “baddy” or dangerous Oromo subversive?

    • Dear Chuchu
      Great man with well thought comment. Keep blessed. We need people such as you and Tsegaye who are genuine and exposed.

  10. QUESTION FOR THE SOUL ?
    Why is it that the Amharas, specially the Showa Amhara/NEFTEGNAS still directly and indirectly implying that Oromos were uncivilized people ?
    I wonder if that the same reasoning that The Showa Amharas King (Menilike) banned Oromos language from every Oromos municipalities and Oromos court and made The Amharas language as the official language of the Oromos and all other Ethiopians.
    Could it this be the same mentality and reasoning why King Menilike took the land from the uncivilized Oromos and gave to his own Showa Amhara feudals ?
    Regardless, it seems the “Oromos uncivil” mentality still lingering in Showa Amharas/Nefetegnas mentality.

    • Oromo did not have land, idiots; They came from Somali by crossing the Shebelle river. Read the Oromo migration and invasion of Ethiopia. Oromo did not have land because they were refugees. Oromo in Ethiopia are like the white South African invaders in South Africa.

      • Lemlem
        People laugh at your illiteracy and evil mind. I know for sure, you are not Amhara. I am Oromo, and know alive Amharas (amharic speaking people) do not behave like you do. It is stupid of you to make all such idiots which tells who you are and how you behave. you will be sick soon. We know very well you and people like you. It wont help you any more. A kid would laugh at you as in 21 century you fail to think and be modern.
        Many people read these and I guess nearly all-will laugh at you because you are a hopeless and embarrassing human being with out integrity. But for sure, you must be Shabiya or Weyane-both try to create a major rift between the two major groups for their own agenda. But time has run out!!!!

  11. Dear Gallas, do not get upset please. What is your real name ? Your originally name is Galla? I am serious. Let us be serious. Forget Menelick because you do not qualify to talk about the African hero. Let us talk about real issues of Oromo? who are Oromos? what is their real name? I know it was Galla before. Derg gave them a new name Oromo. Oromo itself is a Geez word or name. I am not able to know Oromos by their real name. Do you have originally name? if you do have where is it? Do you have history? if yes, where is it? You are immigrants. If Menelick treated you as immigrants. He was right. Even today if you migrate to a new country, your rights will be limited. Even today, refugees has to go through many processes to settle in their host country and So dd the Galas in Ethiopia. You are all coward who fear your own identity as refugees. Let us change the topic, let us be honest and discuss where did Oromo came from? This must be discussed openly scientifically and they must know who they are . Becoming refugees did not start with Oromos. Yes you have been living in Ethiopia for 400 years now. Do not gloss over by saying we lived together bla bla bla bla. No one is saying you did not live for the past 400 years in Ethiopia. But where did Oromo come in the 16 century? This must be discussed openly. In order to discuss about Menelick, the black hero who defeated white people, we need to know the origin of Oromos first. In philosophy there is what we call cause and effect. When we talk about Menelick? we are talking about effect without talking about the cause? The cause is the Oromo invasion of Ethiopia and burning of all Ethiopians up to Eritrea. The entire Tigrean elites were executed by Oromo invaders in Agame Awwarja after they finished killing amharas; it is online you can google and read what the oromo did to the rest of Ethiopians. Woldu Subagagis the then ruler of Tigrai was executed by Oromo invader with all his cabinet. This happened after the Oromo reached Tigrai and Eritrea by killing, raping amharas and forcing to be soldiers to fight their cousin Tigreans. Then after that what happened? The Amhara and Tigrean rallied together and drove out the refugees from most part of Ethiopia. By the Oromo invasion was uncalled for and no one was prepared for it. Oromos were transient resident aliens in Ethiopia. Whatever happened to Oromo after invasion is the law of physics. If a foreigner invades your country what do you do? Even now? The Galas are now crying by presenting themselves as victims. But the truth is they were transient aliens and aggresssors and invaders they needed to be punished and in my view it was wrong to let the Oromos settle and they must have been driven out until Moyale. If Menelick did something to them? he was right and because he was the owner of the country. Even today what do you do if a foreigner invades your country?
    Dear Galas, do not be angry. Be brave to discuss about your origin or where you came from. Discussing about effect without discussing about the cause is wrong. Whether you see it classically or scientifically, every story has to sides. You wanted to discuss about Menelick? but you do not want to discuss about your origin or history? why? you are insecure and empty suffering from inferiority complex. Why? migration did not start by Oromo? all the people in North America migrated from Europe, Asia, Africa, middle east but none of them denies their migration? why is a taboo to talk about Oromo migration and invasion? I do not get it? you wanted to talk about Menelick? but you do not want to talk about Oromo migration and invasion? why? If you do not want talk about Oromo migration and invasion? then shut up and stop talking about Menelick. I am serious. We will build a monument about Orommo migration and invasion in addis ababa.
    You Gala wanted us only to listen to you? You need to talk about the whole story, not half story.
    Let us discuss first about the Oromo migration and invasion, then we can discuss about Menelick. First thing first, then second thing second. I am serious; The Oromo migration and invasion did cause genocide which is recorded and whatever Menelick did is a response to Oromo invasion.
    My dear Galas, do not insult me. Accept views different from your views. We have no obligation to listen to your false allegation of Menelick. We are tired of this hate mongering every year about Menelick. The man has died 130 years ago. Every Ethiopian who is now alive can not be hold accountable for the past. I can not be hold in charge of my father’s wrong doings if thee is any. But Gala is Gala, Gala goes backward, not forward? haha, I am joking. You Gala brothers I love you but I wanted you to leave alone Menelick and move forward. Let him ( Menelick ) rest in peace please. We can not accuse the current oromo youth for the crimes done by Oromo invaders who killed our people, our ancestors. No Oromo youth can be hold accountable for what Mariye the Oromo did the Wollo Amhara. I wanted you Galla brothers to read about Oromo migration and invasion and you will understand the crimes, murders,genocides, rapes done by the then cattle driving savage Gallas.
    The other thing, you are trying to ally Amhara with you against Tigreans? haha, smart? it will not work because blood is thicker than water. No matter how the Amahra and Tigreans bite each other, but when it is serious, they will not leave each other.The Amharas are not fond of the whole ethnic propaganda. They will not buy the oromo propaganda.
    My Galas brothers, Negro is a colonial name which means slave. If Menelick said he was not Negro; He meant he was not slave and he was right because he was not a slave.
    There is only one way out from all these ethnic or Oromo propaganda. To live in the 21 century, not in the 19th and 20th century. Stop taking us back to the 19 century. If you refuse, we take you back to the 16 century too? It is the law of physics.
    The fact Oromos aka galas refused to use Geez and decided to use European dead alphabet is a testament Oromos or Galas are Galas who came from Galan river? haha, The things you do against Ethiopia are bona fide and prima facie evidence you do not belong to Ethiopia and you do not feel you belong. You still live in the Ethiopia land? you drink the milk, honey of the land? but you hate the very land that feed you ? You are ungrateful.
    You need to drop your Oromo narrow propaganda and accept Ethiopia as it is and live, work for 2row better Ethiopia for all regardless origin, history. You may be getting money now from Egypt or Arab Muslims, but that is not beneficial for the ordinary Oromo. If you refuse, we have to kick your ass through Moyale to Kenya where your came from and you will live in Kakuma or Dadab refugee camps. I do love Galas like the rest of Ethiopians, but Galas must stop taking us back to the 20th and 19th century. It is not important to go back 400 years and ask Oromos to leave Ethiopia and go back. If you insist to go back to the 19th and 20th century? then we have to take you back to the 16th century and we can shut your mouth. Let us think and worry for every Ethiopian, not for one or two ethnic group. The

    • @ Lemlem
      Wo/man what are you smoking , you better get checked , dude or lady. it looks like you do not know where you are, Sorry for you…..you will die soon!

  12. I have checked, lemlem is Tsedala himself. He wanted an insult not a discussion. We already know that from your dying prof. Getachew haile. Is he a prof anyway? This Tsedla is also incompetent as your Gecho the fool.

  13. 1. Why is the Minilik blackness or whiteness matter. I will tell you he said he is yellow to some Chinese in secret, anyhow it is 120 years probably Minilik was drunk and forgot that he is black or he doesn’t believe in color, he is liberal and he thinks all color is not different. I care less.
    2. Why is Minilik very important to some of you why why? The country is being sold in day light to India, Arabs and what we have is only talking about Minilik.
    3. Why is this very important now. as an oromo I don’t care about Minilik as we are very much under brutal dictatorship now. We are sure Minilik will never come back as they don’t have Gobena again. The elites scared Oromo the hell out of them by showing how Gobena almost eradicate his people working for others, PERIOD. Without Gobena and Meachel (Ali), there will not be Minilik. Yes we will only have a choice of there will be democratic Ethiopia or disintegrated Ethiopia
    This is the whole TPLF mess playing underground and we don’t respond.

  14. Lemlem,
    U proved my point that u are so dumb that the only ideas your puny head generate is a torrents of insults of the Oromo people. Your’s is a typical Abyssinia tradition,usage of abusive language, hurling invective at any one group you could not debate civilly, and resort to conjuring imaginary history of the Abyssinians that never existed!
    Unlike the Abyssinian settlers who’ve crossed the Red Sea from Yemen and the Sabaean Empire to settle in what is present day northern Ethiopia by destroying the Axum Kushtic civilization, the Oromo people are indigenous to North East Africa in the Great Rift Valley for time immemorial! recorded history indicated that, it is the Abyssinians who are the invaders of the high lands of Northern present day Ethiopia and archaeological findings in present day Yemen and present day Tigre province of the Ethiopian Empire indicates that the Queen Of Sheba ruled the Whole Arabian Peninsula that the Abyssinians were part of her subjects before they crossed the narrow channel of the present day Red Sea and began their settlement. They brought the Sabaean Alphabet ( present day Giize) with them, converted to Christianity around 400 AD and all historical things considered,they destroyed the Kushtic Axum civilization. Know, Ms. Lemlem, unlike you, I am not making these up, You can read a book by Stanley Burstein: Ancient African Civilizations, Kush and Axum.
    Just like ur kin folks, you’ve come out from your hiding cave and using the unanimity of modern internet, you spew-out your noxious insults at the Oromo People. The pernicious sentences you’ve describe the Oromo only indicates that you are a troglodyte whose range of vision dose not go beyond the limits of your cave in the Abyssinian High Lands!

  15. Lemlem aka Tigre bitch:
    You are not just from Dedebit BUT YOU ARE DEDEB TIGRE. True to your Dedebit history, twenty five years of looting did not change your illiterate minds. Time is running out – You will return to Dedebit. No more shall Ethiopians defend you when Shabia’s come after Tigray – kick you tigre ass once and for all. Time to settle score is coming soon to Tigray!

  16. The current junta is telling us unless you pray to the GOD Melese, you are not Ethiopia, the other as face also telling us unless you pray to their another GOD Minilik, you are out. It can only tells how the amara and tigre elites will never been a democrat. All Ethiopian. unite to kick these stupid second rate elites out of Ethiopia before they bring us to disintegration.
    Why I need to pray to a human evils to be Ethiopian? They were both evils and did destroyed the people especially the south.

  17. Woyane / TPLF has failed totally and completely in its mission. Woyane is set out to destroy Ethiopia will in the end self-destruct. Ethiopians will continue to watch on the sidelines with aching hearts and bellies. They gnash their teeth and wag their index fingers asking themselves when the day of reckoning will finally arrive.
    Woyane and all Tigre accomplices know that behind the deafening silence of millions of Ethiopians and apparent passivity is boiling anger just like liquefied magma before it erupts in a volcano.
    Or perhaps it is like the proverbial finger in the dam. You can’t stop the dam from collapsing by sticking a finger in the hole of the dam. What happens when the dam finally collapses?
    There is no doubt about it. The day of reckoning for the Woyane and all Tigre accomplices will come “unexpectedly, like a thief in the night.”

  18. I do not see any Gala aka Oromo argueing with any reason. You have no brain. Gala na Karia eyadere ygemal new yemibelaw, yale mkniat aydelem endeza yeteblaw. You galas talking about Menelick who died 130 years ago, but you do know your name? or you are nameless? We have many names Abyssinia,Ethipia, Cush ,Habesha, … but Gala has only two names Gala and Oromo ( new name ). You are nameless and history less? You do not who you are ? because you are immigrants in Ethiopia, you would love to call all Ethiopians as immigrants? Shame on you, research, study and know you who are instead of trying to steal names, Latin Alphabets from everywhere. Shame on you Galas. If Galas is an insult what is your name? Oromo is a new name, what is your real name?
    Galas please live 21st today and work for 2row. Empawaaa Amhahara, empawa guragie, empawa wolyta, empoawa tegaru, empoawa adere, empoawa kunuma, …but chase out this pagan, tree worshipper , nomadic savage galas.We must drive them out through the Shebelle and Gelena river where they through. Let them be like Palestians . You do not like it, but Woyane is going to stay there. Even if Woyanes go, the Amharaa will take over, not Gala.

  19. You wanted to research about Menelick? but you do not want to research about your history? your name? your origin? Yeraswwa eyarerebat yesew Tamaslalech? Megemeria, know your own name, origin, before trying to know or research about Menelick. Gala face

  20. Why we wasted our time energy and knowledege for TPLF sponsored Fiction Writters ,
    The fact of the matter is the last 40+ yrs reign of terror Genocide against gambellas,Oromos Somalis, Amaras ,etc,etc, and in general against Ethiopia and Ethiopians by TPLF and its armed and Dangereous AGAZI murderes that should be OUR FOCUS NUMERO UNO ,
    let’s not distracted by TPLF Sponsored Home Work Provide to us to take off our attentions from Current facts

  21. We proved that Lemlem is TPLF read his article and he is still sure TPLF will be dictator for ever. We have seen also Tsedla is well supported by Lemlem.
    1. Tsedla and Lemlem are the same person.
    2. Tsedla and Lemlem are TPLF agents
    3. These two were looters and they don’t want to see Ethiopia progress to democracy.
    4. All of the above.

  22. To the Webmaster:
    Please you need to block people Like Lemlem who has nothing to contribute except to flame hatred and hurl insults. I think you need to exclude any comment that demonizes and dehumanizes ethnic group/nationalities in Ethiopia or any where for that matter.
    Thanks,
    Burqaa

  23. I said if you wanted to keep on going back 130 years to talk about What Menelick did? Then I said, well, then let us go back to the 16th century Oromo invasion and genocide and talk about everything without bias, but based on the written historical facts. But you Galas wanted us only to listen to your cry only? You do not want to talk about your own history or invasion? Why are we expected only to listen to you? is it fair to talk half the story? The story has to be told all of it. I am surprised the Oromo elites expect everybody to listen only to their won version of the story? They do not want any narration about their history? This is pure ignorance . This me me attitude is not a good attitude. If people do not accept your view you call them TPLF or Woyanes? why? Everyone has to subscribe to your false narration? why? This is just stupidity. You talk about Menelick every day?but you never talk about your own invasion, genocide you did across Ethiopia as invaders. It is true your ancestors did it, not you? but when you keep on going back 100 years telling us lies, you are forcing us to go back to the 16th century to tell you what you did to our native Ethiopians. I am really surprised you wanted only to be listened about your version of narration? only yours? you expect us to keep quiet? You lies has no limit, you keep on lying and you even tell us Oromo or Gala built Fasiledes, Lalibela, Axum,… comes on guys, .. you do not have to steal other people’s history to be Ethiopian. I am serious, you do not to make false claim Oromo built Fasiledes to be Ethiopians? You do not have to claim falsely you built Lalibela to be Ethiopian. You contradict yourself . At the same time, you refuse to use Amharic, Geez and you rent an old dead Latin Alphabet from Europe in the 21st century? You claim you are more black than Menelick? You claim Menelik said he was not African? but you forget you claimed in 1991 you are not African and to prove that you are white you rented Latin from Europe? You despising yourself.

  24. Addis Abeba University was one of the icon of African University.however after woyane came to power this famous university filled by cadres. Some of them with out proper education they called themselves professor thanks to Abebe Gelaw exposed them by evidence. How the person does not have any educational background bible graduate to be Addis Abeba university as philosophy lecturer?This shows how this corrupt government destroy the core value of education. Thus why some of them sold their conscious for benefits.

  25. Lemlem;
    I am afraid you spent the whole money your masters paid you on hash and alcohol. You don’t see that you are making a fool of yourself. As a typical TPLFite, you don’t know the limits of shame. Many people try to bring you to your senses, but that made you to feel even greater and you continue drooling.
    You are a perfect sample out of the dumb bunch, TPLF.

  26. Some of the inflammatory, vulgar and stupid comments made by many regarding Tsegaye’s diatribe and Tedla’s seasoned response, are appalling to say the least.
    Tsegaye is a bogus intellectual. His narrative on Menelik is childish, absurd and very much reminiscent of the lies Eritrean Liberation Fronts used for years that OLF has adopted shamelessly.
    By the way, the now derogatory word ‘Nigger’ hails from West African river, Niger. The ancient Romans referred to the black inhabitants living along the great river passing through many countries today by its name the same way people living around the Nile are also called Nilotic. It was not meant to cause an offense then.
    So, Menelik was right if refused to be labelled Nigger as I too would vehemently reject it today.
    Tsegaye was disingenuous and childlike when he used such a silly argument to tarnish Menelik’s monumental significance.
    The undue inferiority complex and sense of historical victimization that has become an embodiment of men and women around OLF is staggering.
    Oromos who had moved from Southern Ethiopia to the center and beyond over the last 800 years have played formidable role in the making of our proud nation. Unlike the silly and unfounded allegations of exclusion, enslavement of Oromos which many miseducated self-appointed Oromos peddle, they were rather the movers and shakers our country.
    Woyanes are Ethiopia’s greatest enemy. The OLF was an ally of this criminal organisation that has been complicit in the massacre of tens of thousands of innocent Amaras and many Christian Oromos and the destruction of Ethiopia.
    Oromos have a historical responsibility to rebuild our sinking nation along with the Amaras and other Ethiopians at such a critical moment. Tsegaye should have done better trying to besmirch the noble Menelik and his government largely headed by gallant men and women of decent. My plea is simple. Some like Tsegaye and OLF have done a great diservice to Oromos and the rest of their compatriots. Let us learn from our mistakes. If the artificial rift between Oromos and Amaras disappear, Woyane would be history in one week.
    Re-establishing that trust should be our task. Long live the Motherland

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