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Addis Standard Editorial: Ethiopia Grappling Heightened Risk State Collapse Time Orderly Transition

Addis Ababa, September 27/2017 – Ethiopia is fast descending into turmoil as the result of incessant state-sanctioned violence and repression. Popular demands that precipitated a three year-long protest, which started in Oromia in 2014 and then spread to the Amhara and other regions, remain unaddressed. The discontent in the two most populous regional states, Oromia and Amhara, home to two-thirds of the country’s population of over 100 million, is deep and widespread. The resulting anxiety, expressed by serious Ethiopia watchers, is confirmed by the country’s leader, Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, who once warned that the continued protests could push Ethiopia into a situation similar to what has prevailed in neighboring Somalia for the last 26 years: state collapse.

Thousands of internally displaced Oromos from the recent conflict in eastern Ethiopia remain in temporary shelters

The popular protests signaled a regime in crisis. After ruling for a quarter century, the ruling coalition, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), began to exhibit signs of decomposition. Nowhere is this well archived than the reporting by this magazine over the last six years. The economy, once touted as the envy of the world, started experiencing a downward spiral. Tensions emerged at the highest echelons of the security apparatus with the civilian and military intelligence at loggerheads over the direction of the regime’s response to the protests. Beginning in December 2016, two months into the state of emergency that was declared to suppress the protests, the situation got further complicated with rising tensions between regional states – first between the Amhara and Tigray regions and currently between the Oromia and Somali regional states.

Escalating Tensions

For years, Oromo residents near the regional frontiers have complained of an aggressive attempt by the Somali Regional State to forcefully dispossess their land. Until recently their grievances fell on deaf ears. The conflicts escalated in February and March 2017 as incursions and raids conducted by the Somali Special Police (the Liyu Police), also known as the Liyu Hayil, and militia intensified along the border between the two regional states stretching from Chinaksan in the East (near the border with Somaliland) and Moyale (near the border with Kenya).

Cross-border raids and fighting increased in frequency and intensity in early August and tensions boiled over in mid-September in Oromia’s East Hararghe Zone, where at least 60 people were killed, according to locals. In addition to its assault on Oromo civilians in Oromia, members and sympathizers of the Liyu Police are currently attacking and expelling Oromo residents and merchants from the Somali region. As a result, hundreds of Oromos have been killed and tens of thousands displaced from their homes in the Somali region. Authorities in the Oromia region have begun sounding alarm about an all-out war of aggression by the notorious Somali Special Police.

In a more ominous development, officials from the two states are engaged in an unprecedented war of words, particularly on social media. Their tangling is not limited to words. The security organs of the two states have been battling each other over the territories along the common border.

All of this is happening under the watchful eyes of the federal army and security forces, which are now ordered by the Prime Minister to man the common border between the two states and all major roads in Oromia. Oromo residents in the affected areas question the neutrality of the federal army, particularly the impartiality of Tigrean kingmakers in the ruling EPRDF coalition, and not a few accuse them of abetting and enabling the still-ongoing Liyu Police incursions into undisputed Oromo territories.

Critics contend that Tigrayan generals and intelligence officials, the current de facto rulers of Ethiopia, have two overarching objectives for empowering and enabling the Liyu Police and leaders of the Somali region: to cripple the three-year-long Oromo resistance against the EPRDF government, and to undermine, weaken and control the new leaders of the Oromia regional state, who have recently shown some signs of autonomy from the overbearing center. The development risks provoking a total breakdown of law and order on the peripheries, which can gradually creep toward the center—leading to state collapse.

Signs of Collapse

Predicting state collapse, a complex phenomenon with multiple causes and effects, is never easy. However, those writing on state collapse, such as Caty Clement, Robert Rotberg, and Claire Vallings and Magüi Moreno-Torres, agree that the legitimacy, or lack thereof, enjoyed by state institutions and their capacity or failure to deliver the political and economic goods needed by society are the primary indicators. Having refused to open up the political space to allow the population to render judgment on its political legitimacy, the EPRDF regime, in power for over a quarter of a century, had instead sought to predicate its legitimacy on the economy’s exaggerated performance. The resulting political instability now threatens to bring the economy to a standstill.

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Many observers in and outside Ethiopia, including current and former Ethiopian officials, have offered a bleak prognosis about the country’s fate. For example, last year the former Chief of Staff of Ethiopian Defense Forces, General Tsadikan G/Tensae, warned that the mass protests in Oromia and Amhara regions in particular and EPRDF’s failure to contain them augurs the onset of a full-fledged political crisis. His colleague, Gen. Abebe Teklehaimanot also expressed similar concern about the country’s prospects for stability unless significant reforms are implemented.

Similarly, a string of international media headlines and expert analyses warn of a growing political crisis. Articles appearing in Open Democracy, Foreign Policy Journal, Foreign Affairs, and the Guardian, just to mention a few, have joined the chorus about an impending collapse. Perhaps acting out of this fear, Ethiopia declared a state of emergency in October 2016, which lasted for nearly ten months. The declaration was a stunning reversal for Ethiopia’s rulers, who had some success portraying Ethiopia as an island of stability in a troubled region and propagating a myth of “Ethiopia rising.”

Several trend indices point to Ethiopia’s growing state fragility. According to the Fragile State Index, for example, Ethiopia’s fragility has been rising steadily since 2006. The Index of State Weakness designates Ethiopia as one of the world’s critically weak states. Noting the complete lack of political rights, Freedom House has consistently rated Ethiopia as Not Free — with a score of only 14 out of 100 in its 2017 report.

And all states that collapsed had one thing in common: a violent dictatorship locked into a win-lose conflict with a populace determined to untangle the incumbent regime from the reins of power. The breakdown of state-society relations marks a milestone in a trajectory towards state collapse. Other credible risk assessments underscore this same bleak picture for Ethiopia.

Recently, Christopher Clapham, a long-time Africa watcher, noted that Ethiopia is both the anchor and the main source of the perennial instability that has haunted the Horn of Africa region for decades. Should the Ethiopian state implode, as all indicators point toward, the whole region, where a quarter of a billion souls eke out an already precarious existence, would go down with it.

This is not an implausible scenario. Ethiopia is situated in a region harboring two already collapsed states (Somalia and South Sudan), two failing states (Sudan and Eritrea), and yet another fragile state (Kenya). It also abuts the world’s most volatile region, the Middle East. All of these factors about Ethiopia’s increasing fragility ought to have set off alarm bells in Washington, Brussels, London, and Addis Ababa itself, seat of the African Union.

To be sure, the EPRDF is not the sole culprit for all of Ethiopia’s ills. There are factors beyond its control that contribute to the ongoing political convulsion. One such factor is soaring population growth. Ethiopia’s population has doubled since EPRDF came to power, putting unbearable pressure on the environment and natural resources in a country where backward agriculture is the dominant means of agricultural production. In addition, there are a number of quite contentious issues hampering any consensus among the political class.

Divided elites

Ethiopia’s political class is beholden to deeply divergent diagnoses and remedies to tackle the mounting problems. It doesn’t agree even on such uncomplicated issues as the bases of the country’s statehood. EPRDF is convinced that Ethiopia is a nation of nations. Structuring Ethiopia as a federation of nations, nationalities, and peoples stemmed from this conviction.

The elites of the Oromo and other marginalized groups hold the view that the structuring of Ethiopia as a multinational federation was a positive step but dismiss EPRDF’s federation as bogus. Indeed federalism without democracy is an oxymoron. Their fear is that an undemocratic federation of nations could produce a repeat of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia’s disastrous fates. Members of these groups insist that only democratizing the present federation can avert such eventuality.

Another vocal group, hailing predominantly from the previous ruling elite, rejects the emphasis on Ethiopia’s multinational nature and aspires to forge the country’s numerous ethnic groups into a single Amharic-speaking nation—resurrecting the policies and memories of successive feudal and military regimes that stoked decades of armed conflicts and brought the state at different junctures to the brink of collapse. Since neither of these groups is willing to heed the fears, pains, and perspective of the other, a debate of the deaf has been going on among them for the last three decades.

These contrasting positions come with the dangerous implication of pulling the country in opposite directions. The concern that this configuration of political stands could culminate in ripping Ethiopia apart should not be underestimated.

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A successful mobilization by multiple rival groups against a resented centralized power is a harbinger of regime collapse. All indications are that mobilization by both the Oromo and the Amhara, even within the EPRDF, is gathering momentum, thereby exacerbating the regime’s incoherence. To date the protests among the Oromo and Amhara have largely remained peaceful. However, increased repression has made the breakout of armed insurrection all but certain. Most disconcertingly, regime collapse could easily morph into state collapse in Ethiopia as the regime has intricately tied its fate to the survival of the state.

Precipitating factors

The second most threatening factor is the refusal of the ruling party to institute the reforms demanded by the protesters. When the ruled refuse to live under the old order and rulers are unable to carry on in the old way, breaking out of the impasse could be achieved only by instituting significant reforms. And this is just what the EPRDF has been utterly unable and unwilling to do. Without reforms, the specter of a revolutionary breakdown looms around the horizon.

The excessive securitization of the Ethiopian state to stifle growing dissent is also having two unintended consequences. First, it is making rising dissent inevitable. Second, ballooning costs of securing the regime could easily bankrupt it. The recent tax-hike, which resulted in one of the first successful attempts at a general strike in decades, presages what is to come.

The main obstacle to instituting any kind of reform is the lack of democracy and honest conversation within the ruling party. The EPRDF is composed of four entities: (1) The Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), (2) The Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM), (3) The Oromo People’s Democratic Organization (OPDO) and (4) The Southern Ethiopian People’s Democratic Movement (SEPDM). Of all of these, the TPLF, speaking for the least populous constituency, plays a dominant role, thereby standing the EPRDF pyramid on its apex. The inherent instability of this setup accounts for much of Ethiopia’s fragility than anything else.

Growing fragility

States become susceptible to failure when two factors come into play. The first occurs when rulers lose their mandate to govern and their administration of the affairs of the state becomes illegitimate in the eyes and hearts of a growing sector of the concerned populace. The three-year-long protests in Oromia and Amhara regions bespeak the loss of mandate to govern. The second happens when the rulers’ capacity to keep the governed in tow is exhausted. The failure of the state of emergency to quell the popular appetite for resistance against the system attests to this fact. And there seems to be a dialectical relationship between soliciting legitimacy and seeking domination. As coercion is deployed more frequently, the consent of the ruled plummets, and rulers would be forced to increasingly resort to naked coercion, which further diminishes their legitimacy and necessitates the application of even more coercion. For the EPRDF regime, more repression is not yielding the anticipated results.

This vicious cycle has characterized EPRDF’s rule ever since it came to power in 1991. It started with a questionable legitimacy, which steadily diminished with each passing decade. In order to make up for this falling legitimacy, EPRDF bolstered and fine-tuned its instruments of coercion and control. The crude application of these tools in the absence of an astute political leadership creates more security problems than it solves. To make matters worse, since the death in 2012 of its strongman, Meles Zenawi, the EPRDF has shown signs of atrophy, discord, and unraveling. In place of the centralized rule that characterized earlier decades, multiple sources of authority are currently vying for influence—at times violently.

Political fragmentation

Within the EPRDF, inter and intra-party relations have broken down. Both ANDM, ruling the Amhara region, and OPDO, ruling Oromia, are pressing for more autonomy from the TPLF-dominated center in a bid to respond to the growing popular chorus to end Tigrean domination of the country’s politics, economy, and security apparatus. The gap between the official rhetoric of the devolution of power and the reality of continuing centralization has undermined the resilience normally accruing to a federal arrangement. At the moment, the system is more brittle than it has ever been. The failure to stop armed incursions into Oromia from the Somali region, which has led to the killing of innocent people and mass expulsion of Oromo civilians from the Somali region, is a worrisome sign of the breakdown of central control.

The Oromo protests happened despite the long running process of extending party control over the populace, which culminated in 1 out of 5 Ethiopians (i.e., 20 million) being harnessed into an elaborate state surveillance system. This level of regime penetration of society is unprecedented in Ethiopian history and quite likely in the entire African Continent. This panoptic surveillance structure, however, proved totally useless in averting mass uprising particularly by the Oromo and the Amhara.

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That is why authorities resorted to a state of emergency as part of the regime’s increasing reliance on force and coercion to stay in power. Yet even after martial law was imposed, the rebellious societies remain restive and will likely rise up again. It had to be lifted because it had become ineffectual and a burden. This begs a very important question: What would EPRDF do that it has not done to date in order to contain the imminent mass upsurge?

The incumbent regime shows no indication of heeding and addressing the protesters’ grievances. The regime’s effort to placate the people, including through declarations of war on rampant corruption, abuse of power, problems of good governance, cabinet reshuffles, and promises of “deep renewal” have come to naught. And the kneejerk reaction of violently putting down resistance protests has not worked so far and is unlikely to work in the future. This is what makes state failure in Ethiopia a real possibility.

In addition to the mounting political crisis, Ethiopia also faces a looming humanitarian catastrophe. Drought and famine are back in the headlines: See, for example, the Telegraph, BBC, DW, Washington Post, Euro News, Save the Children, Oxfam, World Food Program, CBC, and IRC, just to mention a few. According to the United Nations, 20 million are suffering from acute food shortages, and in many places the situation has already developed into a famine. This time the crisis is not affecting the traditional famine-prone regions of northern Ethiopia, but the Eastern and Southern regions.

Call for action

The escalating conflict along the vast border between the Somali and the Oromia states indicates that Ethiopia’s political crisis is showing no sign of abating. Instead, it is deepening. It is almost universally believed among the Oromo that the conflict is not between the two brotherly populations, the Oromo and the Somali. Rather, it is a proxy war waged by the Tigreyan military brass, which practically rules the country, to intimidate the Oromo as well as the new OPDO leaders, who are increasingly asserting their autonomy from the TPLF under whose hegemony they grudgingly toiled the last 26 years. The Liyu Police happened to be another handy element in its toolbox of the strategy of “divide and conquer.”

The conflict between two large states of the Ethiopian federation has worsened the growing fear of state fragility. Ethiopia’s implosion would have catastrophic reverberations not only in the strife-ridden Horn of Africa but for the entire continent and beyond. The combined effect of these crises is bound to affect neighboring states and could reach as far as Europe, where the flood of refugees from the Middle East has already led to the rise of nativist and populist far-right-extremists. Until now, the EPRDF regime has been given the benefit of the doubt by its Western and other backers despite its gross abuse of power and persistent violations of human rights.

What would further destabilization of the Horn, home to a quarter of a billion, do? Africa and the rest of the world cannot afford Ethiopia, with a population of over 100 million, disintegrating into chaos. The EPRDF regime has laid the groundwork for this eventuality by design or default, and its continued hold on state power would only worsen the crisis. This should not be lost on anyone harboring the least goodwill toward Ethiopia, the troubled Horn region and its suffering population.

The international community has a stark choice: either it wakes up to the dangers and saves Ethiopia from collapse, or faces the consequences. Only an orderly transition toward a legitimate and accountable political order could avert the imminent danger of collapse. It is the best way out for the regime. And the international community needs to step up efforts to come face to face with the ensuing reality. The alternative is being swept away by a tidal wave of popular anger that has been building up for 26 years under a brutal, corrupt, and unyielding dictatorship.

The international community can no longer hope that the regime can muddle through these crises as it has always done. This time around the gravity of Ethiopia’s collapse is qualitatively different from previous situations, not to mention deadly serious. The writing is on the wall: state collapse is on the horizon. AS


Editorial – Ethiopia is grappling with heightened risk of state collapse, it is time for orderly transition


  1. Collapse of woyanes but not of the Ethiopian state! It is indeed coming, think of it you brutal woyanes before it is too late!
    You are now just alone; your seemingliy mighty military and security apparatus will soon be collalpsing. Your policy of devide and rule everywhere in the country has not worked. your former sinior members are now struggling to save you from total downfall, but the tide of events is no longer controlable. Woyane-bandas have been digging their own graves wide and deep for the last 26 years. We now see signs of coming democracy on the horizon and our Ethiopia does not and shall not collapse!

    • Are you sure? Every Ethiopian agrees with the writer except the few like you. Sell your building and get US/European passport on time. The joke and your days are over. You cannot even run away, because of your “bortch” which you got at the expense of millions of starving Ethiopians.

  2. I have been yelling and screaming from the top of my lung on this and other websites expressing my serious concern about the old country. There has been a smoldering dissatisfaction by almost more than 100 million people for the last 26 years. The anger and anxiety along with it has been raging under surface and sometimes erupting into mass protests. Every peaceful protest was dealt with vicious deadly response. It seems that the mildest response the regime has been making are a variety sheer washed up promises that never dealt with the root of the problem. Now I hope I will be found to be utterly wrong but the deadly sounds of guns are sounding everywhere pitching one oppressed people against another. If some of you think that Mekele is far away from the conflict, think twice. If some of think Jimma is way far away, think twice. If some of you think Addis(Finfine) is too far away, I highly suggest that you do not go to sleep with that thought. When I hear from my own relatives that a grenade was lobbed at an elementary school at the railway station town of Miesso, I was overwhelmed by it. Elementary school, innocent angelic kids you know! That never happened in such conflicts before. That demonic Mengistu was the only one who showed fathers and mothers while their children being decapitated. I am aware of the catastrophic drought that has gripped the Somali region but such incursions and raids has been going on for centuries. Drought is just a temporary and periodic factor. There are two radically contrasting lifestyles living in close proximity along a very long and poorly defined border. One is settled and agrarian. The other one is wholly pastoral and extensively mobile. There are also two big markets for the rustled cattle, Djibouti and Hargeisa. Unless the vast nomadic lifestyle is dealt away with, this culture fueled by a runaway population explosion and periodic drought, you may bid farewell to the entire region. Today it is between Oromos and Somalis. For sure it will between Afars and Somalis, Afars and Amharas, Amharas and Oromos, Amharas and Tigrayans, Tigrayans and Oromos/Afars and so it goes soon. The flint will be sparking all over the place. I feel like to close my eyes and just forget about it. And start listening to Joan Baez serenading ‘Farewell Angelina’. Farewell!!!!

  3. Is Jawar Mohammed the one who writes editorial for Addis Standard (A.S.). I didn’t know he is the editor-in-chief of A.S. Not long ago, he was complaining that TPLF/EPRDF would eat him raw if they get him. Now, they’ll eat the paper which he edits from a distance. Just last week, he posted on Zehabesha the abstract of the editorial on A.S.. Nice job, qeerroo.

  4. “Another vocal group, hailing predominantly from the previous ruling elite, rejects the emphasis on Ethiopia’s multinational nature and aspires to forge the country’s numerous ethnic groups into a single Amharic-speaking nation” kkkkkk are you fucking kidding? There is no block in ethiopian elites with this political aspiration.It is ridiculous and dishonest to claim others want to resurrect the feudal system and military regime.

  5. This nasty anti- Amhara and anti Ethiopa agent is accusing the Amhara victims of TPLF surrogate reime by stating:
    For the last 26 years the Amhara people all over Ethiopia have been ethnically cleansed, displaced and killed.
    Little wonder one of the fabrication is the previous ruling elite. Is the so called rulingelite immortal? There is no Amhara elite since 1974. So why are you now blaming Amharas when they are standing for their rights? You like it or not Amhara people will prevail. Ethiopia will be free from Anglo- American proxy colony. Viva Ethiopia. Derbi Kelbesa

  6. What a very nasty anti- Amhara agent are you? Your black mail is doomed to failure. Your accusation of the Amhara victims is realy disgusting. Ever since 1991 Amhara people are ethnically cleansed, displaced and killed. Therefore, Amhara are fighting for their rights.
    How on earth you write:
    “Another vocal group, hailing predominantly from the previous ruling elite, rejects the emphasis on Ethiopia’s multinational nature
    and aspires to forge the country’s numerous ethnic groups into a single Amharic-speaking nation—resurrecting the policies and memories of successive feudal and military regimes that stoked decades of armed conflicts and brought the state at different junctures to the brink of collapse.
    Since neither of these groups is willing to heed the fears, pains, and perspective of the other, a debate of the deaf has been going on among them for the last three decades. ”
    This is a big lie. It is universally known that in ethiopia there is no more
    an Amhara elite since 1974. So better stop your fabrication and anti-Amhara campaign.

    Viva Ethiopia!

    Derbie Kelbessa
    The great

  7. The holder of the real political and economic powers in the country is the TPLF. The TPLF is a fascist political force. Again within the TPLF itself there is the most powerful faction or inner circle drawn from the Tigray area of Adwa (the Meles Zenawi inner circle). The collapse and disintegration of Ethiopia as a state and country was initiated in 1991 when the TPLF conqured it. Soon after its conquest, the TPLF launched and set in motion its disintegrating process by committing pogroms and ethnic cleansings specially targeting the Amhara communities of the country.That is why the country under the TPLF has been experiencing the disintegrative, negative and destructive ethnic conflicts. These TPLF planned and incited ethnic conflicts are on the rise and will engulf the whole country and no group will be spared of them. The TPLF leaders have been committing all these crimes against humanity by design. They wrongly believe that these perpetual intercommunal fightings specially their best card (inciting conflicts between the Amhara and Oromo communities) are the best means safeguard their power and ensure the safety and security of the people of Tigray.

  8. The situation and developments in the country show that the Tigray People`s Liberation front is losing its control or power. Its divide and rule politics is backfiring and weakening it. The failure of the TPLF tactic of making people kill each other is creating unease in panic in it. There are rumours that the TPLF leaders are secretly planning to retreat to their safety,Tigray. But in the end Tigray will be forced to make the choices of handing over the TPLF human rights violators to justice or remaining detached from Ethiopia. My hope is that the Tigray people will come to their senses and choose not to protect the TPLF criminals and transfer them to Ethiopians.

  9. You have to accept the reality. The main problem is your mentality and the culture in which you grew up. The mentality and the culture of the dark eras which are still influencing and confusing you. You need redemption. The Oromo Qubee generation can probably help you in the near future by teaching and heralding a true democracy in that country. But in the meantime it is better if you reconcile yourself with the reality of this time. You cannot turn back the wheel of history.

  10. 25 years we been saying this kind lies and propaganda, nothing happened. As long as The ruling party continue to work hard and build the country they will be reelected again and again.





  12. what i have learned, tigreyans are die hard ant amhara,loooooooooooooooooooooooool.

    such things may bring disaster and state of collapse,

    we somalis we have no problem with amhara since 91,lool

  13. This web site full of Islamist extremists trying to divide Ethiopia in order to take Ethiopia to 2000 years backward (Islamize Ethiopia). The good this is Ethiopia always will remain Christian country.

  14. The terrorist, mafia and tyrannical TPLF/EPRDF is living on borrowed time and are hanging by a thread. The sooner they are completely destroyed and chased out of power, the better for all ethiopian. All patriotic ethiopians from all ethnic groups should join force in order to expedite the death of TPLF/EPRDF. The division b/w those who want to keep ethiopia into different ethnic groups and those who want an ethiopia with non ethnic based regions is not as wide and insurmountable as it seems. The ethiopian people will determine which course of action is best in due time after the total and complete destruction of TPLF/EPRDF and the establishment of a new constitution and democracy.

    The author said,
    “Another vocal group, hailing predominantly from the previous ruling elite, rejects the emphasis on Ethiopia’s multinational nature and aspires to forge the country’s numerous ethnic groups into a single Amharic-speaking nation—resurrecting the policies and memories of successive feudal and military regimes that stoked decades of armed conflicts and brought the state at different junctures to the brink of collapse. Since neither of these groups is willing to heed the fears, pains, and perspective of the other, a debate of the deaf has been going on among them for the last three decades.”

    This statement is mostly false. I and many other Ethiopians who believe in Ethiopia without ethnic bases states and regions are not from previous ruling elites. As a person of non-amhara ethnic group, I believe ethiopia needs one national language so that all ethnic groups can communicate among themselves using one language. That language is amharic since it is most mature and widely spoken language. Just like English is in USA. USA is composed of people from all regions of the world and all ethnic groups in this world. All 53 states in US use one language, English, as an official language. There is no German, Britain, France, Sweden, Norway, Nigeria, South Africa, China, Vietnam, etc, etc etc region the # 1 country in the world, the LAND OF THE FREE AND HOME OF THE BRAVE. A person from a state in east coast of the country can go to west coast of the country and is able to communicate socialize, do business with anybody.

    • You are an ignorant and backwarded. Just keep on your empty akaki serf. The era of domination and assimilation has gone for good. The Oromo nation beg no one to regain its natural rights.

  15. The losers and their endless propaganda, evil wish wash.

    The losers have the lies and propaganda.on the other side the hero and victors stand by the facts and the truth and they will always rule within or without.

  16. Ato Gamadaa,

    You are an impotent shit eating TPLF/EPRDF prostitute slave. You are one selfish son of a bitch. HE WHO EATS ALONE WILL DIE ALONE. In the early 1990’s the OROMO elite conspired with TPLF to create the disastrous ethnic based regions in ethiopia. The Oromo elite were able to secure almost half of ethiopian land for OROMO for allowing TPLF elite control over 90% of ethiopian land. Oromo elites, the MASTERS OF IMPOTENT PROSTITUTE GAMADAA, were and still are doing very well while over 95% of ethiopians are doing very poorly. NEVER ONCE DID THE OROMO ELITE COMPLAINED WHEN TPLF ELITE WERE COMMITTING GENOCIDE/LOOTING/KILLING AND DISPLACING MILLIONS OF PEOPLE IN AMHARA, AFAR, SOMALI, OGADEN, GAMBELA, SIDAMA and MANY OTHER REGIONS IN ETHIOPIA. THEIR THINKING WAS IF I AM OK THE HELL WITH EVERYBODY ELSE. NO EMPATHY WHATSOEVER FOR THE MANY OTHER OPPRESSED ETHIOPIANS. Only when TPLF elite wanted a peace of OROMO elite’s land/loot by planning to expand addis abeba’s territory to oromo region did the OROMA elite started complaining about TPLF rule. THUS A FIGHT BETWEEN TWO PARTNERS IN CRIME STARTED. Now the OROMO elite are ripping what they sow. THE CHICKEN HAS COME HOME TO ROOST. The illegal ethnic borders the oromo elite crafted with TPLF is leading to the murder and displacement of hundreds and thousands respectively of everyday oromo and somali people. ETHNIC BASED TERRITORY IS 100% ILLEGAL AND CRIME AGAINST ETHIOPIANS IN PARTICULAR AND HUMANITY IN GENERAL. ALL TERRITORIES IN ETHIOPIA BELONG TO ALL ETHIOPIANS. AN ETHIOPIAN OF SOMALI, AFAR, GAMBELA OR AMHARA ETHNICITY HAS AS MUCH RIGHT AND OPPORTUNITY FOR OWNERSHIP OF LAND AND PROPERTY AND EMPLOYMENT IN CURRENT OROMIA REGION AS A PERSON OF OROMO ETHNICITY. THEREFORE THERE IS NO SUCH THING CALLED OROMO, SOMALI, AMHARA, TIGRAY, ETC REGION/TERRITORY. IT IS THE FIGMENT OF CRAZY PEOPLE’S (LIKE ATO GAMADAA) IMAGINATION AND EUROPEAN COLONIALIST CREATION TO DIVE AND RULE AFRICAN PEOPLE. THERE IS ONLY ETHIOPIAN REGION/TERRITORY WHICH BELONGS TO ALL ETHIOPIANS. PERIOD.

    • I don’t want to go down to your level. Your words speak for itself who you are. You are just an empty minded ignorant.

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